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Exam2Review - What is the difference between holoepipelagic...

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What is the difference between holoepipelagic and meroepipalic fishes? Holoepipelagic fishes: spend their entire lives in the epipelagic zone (ex. Sharks, flying fishes, tuna, marlins, swordfish) Meroepipalic fishes: spend only part of their life cycle in epipelagic waters (more diverse group, ex. Lantern fish that migrate to the surface layers at night to feed on plankton) (Chapter 3, Pages 1 – 2) What are the four largest environmental factors impacting Nekton? Light, Temperature, Density and Currents (Chapter 3, Page 2) How had oceanic nekton adapted to deal with locomotion? The most significant adaptations are mechanisms to keep them suspended in the water and propel them through it – Buoyancy. Fish – gas/swim bladders, Marine Mammals – lungs, Birds – air sacs and air trapped under feathers Propulsion - Force is also created by some part or parts of the animal’s body; ex. Undulating the body or fins. As well as surface resistance and body shape. (Chapter 3, Pages 3 – 6) What mechanisms do oceanic nekton employ for defense and camouflage? Most common is camouflage o Transparency of the body o Cryptic coloration o Alteration of body shape ( cryptic body shape) (Chapter 3, Page 7) Why do whales beach themselves? Strandings can be caused by environmental factors, rough weather, weakness due to old age or infection, difficulty giving birth, hunting too close to shore, and navigation errors. (Chapter 3, Page 9)
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How do nekton receive sensory information? (Chapter 3, Page 10) Most sensory information received by nekton comes via: Light (vision) Sound (hearing) Chemicals (olfaction) Describe the reproduction and life cycles of marine mammals (Chapter 3, Pages 13 – 14) Marine mammals have two groups: o Pinnipeds – give birth on land
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