NS 115 - NS 115 8/27/07 How Do We know What we Know?...

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NS 115 8/27/07 How Do We know What we Know? “Nutritional Wisdom” 1) We are born with knowledge 2) Personal Testimony-much more powerful 3) Because someone told us 4) Because I read it in a newspaper or in a book 5) It is ancient wisdom 6) Because my professor told me 7) Because it was written by a scientist Properties of Science that makes it the best “truth” finder ever invented 1)observation 2) must be public 3) peer reviewed 4) Replication Null Hypothesis - negation/opposite of the statement in the hypothesis - You cannot prove a hypothesis ,BUT you can disprove a Null Hypothesis What is the probability of finding a result by chance?. ..”p” value= probability of obtaining a result by chance Epidemiological Studies - studies of correlations within a population - Problem: populations differ in many ways Epidemiological Studies: Case Control - Problem: The two populations differ from each other in ways more than eating garlic ( the example) - Association DOES NOT = Causation - You cannot prove a relationship with a correlation but you can disprove one Experimental Study Open Clinical Trial- ask people to eat garlic Result: cholesterol was reduced -Make a Control Group Results: Garlic eaters have a lower cholesterol Randomized Design Study Placebo Controlled Randomized Study Results: garlic eaters have a lower cholesterol Placebo Controlled, Double Blind, Randomized Study Placebo Controlled, Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Design Study - There are two groups - Each do not know whether or not they are receiving the placebo or real treatment (garlic in this case)
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- Scientist do not know which group is receiving the placebo or treatment (double blind) - The groups switch treatments after a set period of time to test the effect on both (cross-over) - This is the best experimental method 8/29/07 The Autonomic Nervous System LOVE= Assimilation of energy; works with Parasympathetic System ; sets up metabolic sequence HATE= Sympathetic System = dissipation of energy; pushes energy into muscle groups Central Control System Brain Functions: coordinates actions, anticipates actions, prepares muscles and organs for expected actions A) Parasympathetic : - Assimilates energy - Discrete enervation - Acetylcholine B) Sympathetic : - Uses energy - “Fight or Flight” - Networked Enervation - Norepinephrine Eye Pupil: -Symp opens -Para closes Vision: -symp= distance - para= close (more relaxed, typed print is visible) Tears: -Symp inhibit ( you cannot cry when you are scared) - Para stimulates Salivary Glands Symp- stops secreting (inhibits) Para- Stimulates (when you smell food you salivate) Bronchial System Breathing Rate: - Sym: increases - Para: decreases Bronchial System: - Sym: increases - Para: decreases Bronchial Circulation - Sym: increases - Para: decreases Heart
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Rate: - Symp: stimulates - Para: inhibits Velocity: - Symp: increases - Para: decreases Blood Flow Sympathetic: - Increases: large muscles, heart, lungs, brai - Decreases: digits, GI tract Parasympathetic - Increases: digits, GI tract
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NS 115 - NS 115 8/27/07 How Do We know What we Know?...

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