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Unformatted text preview: Physical Geology 101 1 29. Groundwater (p. 458-479) Water Table Water that infiltrates into sediment and rocks at the surface becomes groundwater . It is all the water stored below the Earth's surface in spaces within bedrock or regolith. e.g. ______________ in sediments _________________________ in bedrock Groundwater accounts for _____% of all liquid fresh water and can be found everywhere, even in the driest deserts. What is the typical depth above which most groundwater occurs? _____________ How deep can water nonetheless be found in the crust? _________________________ At great depths, most water gets taken up in crystal lattices of minerals. The study of groundwater is called ______________________. To access groundwater, we must dig deep holes. These fill with water at the bottom to become a ________. Initially, we dig through dry sediment. The pores in the sediment are filled with air, and maybe a small amount of moisture. What are the three names used to describe sediment with no water in the pores? 1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ As we dig deeper, we hit sediment that has all the pores filled with water. This zone is called the: ____________________________ or the _____________________________. The boundary between air-saturated sediment and water-saturated sediment is called the _____________________. Any well that penetrates this boundary will fill up with water to this level. The water table is not flat but undulates in the same manner as the overlying hills and valleys. So it is _____________ under the hills and _____________ under the valleys. The natural flow tendency of groundwater is: _________________________________ In such cases, rivers get fed new water ______________________. During times of drought, the water table drops which is why wells dry up. A river s flow decreases or it dries up because there is no longer a source of water from below when the water table falls to a level just below the bottom of the river valley. Physical Geology 101 2 Survivor question (Outwit, Outplay, Outlast!): if you get lost in a desert, where would you dig for water?...
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- Fall '08