deformationII - Physical Geology 101 20. Crustal...

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Physical Geology 101 1 20. Crustal Deformation II (p. 279-288; 290-291) Brittle Structures Faults Whereas joints form by fracturing a rock in such a way that the two sides of the joint just move apart from each other, with faults the two sides of the fracture start to slide past each other. This may result in a lot of energy can be released, as an ______________. What is the most common type of location where faults occur? ______________________________________ The only reason that tectonic plates are able to move past each other is because of the faults between the plates. Examples of faults at tectonic plate boundaries: 1. The _______________________ fault separates the North American and Pacific plates in California. 2. The _______________________ region has faults along the boundary of the North American and Juan de Fuca plates. An example of a recent earthquake in this region was the M6.8 __________________ earthquake on 2/28/01. 3. The _______________________ region, where many countries are prone to earthquakes (e.g., Japan, Taiwan, Phillipines). Faults can occur a long way from the plate boundaries, producing a second class of earthquakes in regions referred to as _________________________. Some of these may be ancient faults that are no longer active, but many are still active today. Where was the largest earthquake in the recorded history of the continental United States in the winter of 1811-1812? _____________________________________ There were 3 large earthquakes all above a magnitude 7, the largest an 8.1. The faults that produced these earthquakes are nowhere near a plate boundary. What causes the two sides of a fault to slide past each other? ____________________ This stress comes from the motion of the tectonic plates and either pulls or pushes on the faults, causing them to slip. Any fault that is inclined with respect to horizontal has the rocks on one side of the fault sitting on top of rocks on the other side of the fault.
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Physical Geology 101 2 In this case, each side of the fault has its own name: The rocks on top of the fault define the _____________________ (HW) The rocks underneath the fault define the ___________________ (FW). You can remember this by imagining being able to walk through a tunnel inside the Earth that cuts
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Williams,t during the Fall '08 term at Idaho.

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deformationII - Physical Geology 101 20. Crustal...

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