UTILITARIANISM (J. S. MILL)Mill’s theory offers the following responses to the challenges we have seen to moral philosophy: To the Challenge from Prudence: The end that we should have in mind when making our moral decisions is the cultivation of happiness for the greatest possible number of people. It’s good to focus on happiness, but we must remember that the goal is the maximization of happiness for as many people as possible, and not necessarily our own. Hopefully we’ll be able to benefit ourselves by acting rightly. Even if I spend all of my efforts helping others, however, in the ideal scenario I will be benefited by the efforts of others. To Nietzsche’s Challenge: When we think about it, pleasure and the freedom from pain (specified carefully) are the only things that are desirable as ends in themselves. The only reason I would want anything would be for its contribution to my pleasure or freedom from pain. This is
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