American Politics and Civil Society

American Politics and Civil Society - American Politics and...

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American Politics and Civil Society Philosophical Influences Competing Models Why a Constitution? Ideologies at the Constitutional Convention The selling of the Constitution Structures and Functions of Institutions Constitutional Rules Political Culture and Modern Ideologies
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Philosophical Influences Plato: Critique of democracy (tyranny of the majority, the rule of the philosopher- king, the need for absolute truth Hobbes: The anarchic state of nature, the need for order, the limits of self-interest, irrevocable consent of the governed, strong executive leadership Locke: The rational view of humans, natural rights (life, liberty, health, and property), tacit and active consent of the governed, executive power of the law of nature, power tilted toward legislative government, limited government Burke: Dislike of innovation, mistrust of the “people”, mixed government (balance of power between regal, aristocratic, and popular institutions), the nation as the property of everyone Rousseau: The concept of the “general welfare” (general will), revoking the consent of the governed, preeminence of the law (as a protection against the powerful), dislike of representatives (politicians) Adam Smith: The “invisible hand” of the market, unconscious market forces, the social utility of self-interest (the “trickle down” theory), laissez-faire government policies
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Competing Models (Electoral Models) SMDP (Single Member District Plurality) Plurality rule—the most votes wins (first past the post) Plurality with a run off—if no one gets a majority, the top two vote getters have run-off PR (Proportional Representation) The Party is represented in the legislature proportionate to the vote it received in election.
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Competing Models (Political Systems) Parliamentary (Unitary) Members of Parliament elected by people Parliament appoints/elects PM
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course POL 2 taught by Professor Robertbrown during the Fall '05 term at Riverside Community College.

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American Politics and Civil Society - American Politics and...

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