Democratic Models2 - Democratic Models Democratic Political...

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Unformatted text preview: Democratic Models Democratic Political and Electoral Models Political Models Political Direct Democracy 1. direct democracy (vs. elected 1. representatives) representatives) 2. exclusion (vs. inclusion) 2. Who gets the right to vote? Expansion of the Who franchise? franchise? 3. civil and political rights? Does the majority respect rights? Political Models Political Republicanism: Representative Republicanism: Democracy Democracy Delegate Model of representation Trustee model of representation Who elects the representatives? Popular vote Intermediary institutions Political Models Political Minimalist definition: Emphasis on electoral procedures & selection of leaders, i.e.: procedures “A system in which the most powerful decisionmakers are selected through fair and periodic makers voting procedures in which candidates freely compete for votes, and in which virtually all people have the right to vote.” (Samuel Huntington) (Samuel Political Models Political Maximalist definition: emphasis on electoral procedures AND Maximalist protection for civil liberties protection the right to vote the right to be elected/eligibility for public office the right of political leaders to compete for support and votes free and fair elections freedom of association freedom of expression alternative sources of information iinstitutions that make government policies actually depend on votes nstitutions and other forms of (voter) preference and (Robert Dahl) Political Models Political Various degrees of democracy: Various terminology terminology Liberal democracy (full or institutionalized Liberal democracy) democracy) Electoral democracy semi-democracy/pseudo-democracy/ semi-democracy/pseudo-democracy/ “Illiberal” democracy “Illiberal” Variation #1: degree of territorial & political centralization centralization Federal System vs. “Unitary” System Federal system: Decentralized authority sovereignty constitutionally split between at least sovereignty two territorial levels units at each level can act independently of the units others in some areas. Citizens have political obligations to two (or more) Citizens authorities Examples: U.S., Canada, Germany Unitary System: Unitary Authority & sovereignty centralized in one Authority place (the capital) place Policies largely set by “the center” No intermediary layer between local and No central government Local govt subservient to central govt Examples: France, Turkey, England Pros & Cons: Pros Federal system: Federal more democratic, more responsive… more Encourages separatism? Less efficient? Unitary system more efficient? Encourages national unity? Variation #2: Powers and processes of leadership Powers Presidential vs. Presidential Parliamentary Systems Parliamentary a. Title & power of head of state state Presidential system: head of govt – always called the president – is head elected for a prescribed period and generally cannot be dismissed unless guilty of severe wrongdoing. Parliamentary system: head of the government usually (but not always) head called the Prime Minister. His/her cabinet responsible to the legislature (Parliament); can be dismissed through a vote of no confidence. b. How head of state is chosen b. In Presidential System, presidents are In Presidential presidents popularly elected by populace popularly In a Parliamentary system, head of state In Parliamentary head selected by the legislature. selected Elections for other Representatives Representatives SMDP Model: One winner Determined by plurality vote Disproportionate Representation PR Model Multi-party systems Determined by % of the popular vote Uneasy majorities subject to the disproportionate Uneasy influence of minority parties…need to hold together fragile coalitions fragile c. Status of the head of state c. In a presidential system, president In presidential president appoints the cabinet and they are considered subservient to him. considered In a parliamentary system, the prime In parliamentary the minister serves as one among equals minister d. selection of the cabinet… d. In Presidential system, cabinet appointed cabinet separately by president separately In Parliamentary system, cabinet drawn cabinet from legislature e. Length of term in office e. In a presidential system, llegislators and egislators presidents serve fixed terms presidents In a parliamentary system, llegislators egislators and presidents serve a maximum time in office but a ruling party can call early elections if it wants to elections f. allocation of govt powers… f. In presidential system, executive and In presidential executive legislative functions separate legislative In parliamentary system, executive and In parliamentary executive legislative functions fused legislative Notes: Notes iit is common in parliamentary systems to have t a president or monarch who is the CEREMONIAL head of state, and a PM who is in charge of the government in Examples of Parliamentary systems: Britain, Examples Turkey, South Africa, Germany Turkey, Examples of Presidential systems: U.S., most Examples of South America Many countries have “mixed” systems, i.e. Many France France Examples-Turkey Examples-Turkey chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER head of government: Prime head Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003) (14 cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister elections: president elected by the elections: National Assembly for a 7-year term; prime minister drawn from majority party and confirmed by president. Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan, 2003 Examples- United Kingdom Examples chief of state: Queen chief ELIZABETH II ELIZABETH head of government: head Prime Minister Tony BLAIR (since 2 May 1997) cabinet: Cabinet of cabinet: Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: monarchy is elections: hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is Tony Blair, British PM (photo from the Birmingham Post) Example: Brazil Example: chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003) 2003) note - the president is note both the chief of state and head of government elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for fourpopular year terms parliamentary system: parliamentary pros and cons + Strengthens parties - Gives the public Strengthens Gives over individuals less choice over over leadership leadership + Encourages policy - Flexible election based voting rather based Flexible than voting based on terms can = less individual charisma stability stability or $$ or - Fusing of executive Fusing + Fusing of & legislative Fusing legislative & exec. branches can branches can concentrate too promote efficiency much power in one promote place place Presidential system: Presidential pros and cons + Gives the people more Gives choice over leadership choice + “strong” government“strong” president more insulated and can act with daring and + higher levels of higher government accountability accountability + Greater stability + Clear separation of Clear powers powers - Power of presidency Power can be abused can - Can encourage Can deadlock between legislature & executive legislature - Encourages charisma, Encourages $$, rather than substance & policies substance - Set terms= rigidity (bad Set leaders can’t be easily removed) removed) Electoral systems Electoral How voting works: who, where, How and how people get elected and Electoral System ‘Families’ Electoral Source: Democracy -- A Process Democracy Opportunities for Mass Participation Mass LOW Representative Representative (Trustee) Democracy HIGH Representative Representative (Delegate) Democracy Democracy Participatory Participatory Democracy Democracy Direct Direct Democracy Democracy Democracy -- The Outcomes Democracy Protection of Protection Individual Rights Individual High High Low Low Communitarian Libertarian Emphasis on Emphasis General Welfare of the Community the Emphasis on Limited Emphasis Government and Rights of the Individual Individual MODELS OF DEMOCRACY MODELS Individual Rights/Limited Gov’t Liberal Liberal Democracy Democracy High Mass Participation Low Mass Participation Elite Elite Democracy Democracy Majoritarian Majoritarian Democracy Democracy General Welfare Models of Democracy Models majoritarian democracy most important goal is maximizing mass participation high mass participation will result in decisions being high made that maximize the general welfare made Models of Democracy Models elite democracy most important goal is the general welfare requires an elite capable of pursuing the long-term requires interests of society actually values low mass participation Models of Democracy Models liberal democracy most important goal is protecting individual rights does not prefer low mass participation but may be does willing to accept it willing Models of Democracy Models majoritarian democracy most important goal is maximizing mass participation high mass participation will result in decisions being made that high maximize the general welfare maximize majoritarian democratic critiques of other models elite democracy – there is no such thing as an elite that is not elite self-interested and will look after the good of the general masses masses lliberal democracy – emphasis on individual rights is used to iberal limit government in order to protect small, privileged groups limit Models of Democracy Models elite democracy most important goal is the general welfare requires an elite capable of pursuing the long-term requires interests of society actually values low mass participation elite democratic critiques of other models lliberal democracy – undue focus on individual rights iberal limits government’s ability to pursue the general welfare of the community welfare majoritarian democracy – masses are too majoritarian uninterested, incompetent or, at worst, dangerous to be given control over decision-making be Models of Democracy Models liberal democracy most important goal is protecting individual rights does not prefer low mass participation but may be does willing to accept it willing liberal democratic critiques of other models elite democracy – if unchecked, elites will use power elite to infringe the rights of individuals to majoritarian democracy – if unchecked, majority will majoritarian infringe the rights of minorities (tyranny of the majority) majority) Models of Democracy – Viewing Democracy Over Time Viewing elite democrats the masses will always be incapable of making the always decisions for the long-term common good decisions liberal democrats elites and the majorities will always be prone to elites always infringing individual rights if given the chance infringing majoritarian democrats elites will always be self-serving elites always masses can learn over time to become better masses democratic citizens if given a meaningful opportunity to do so do elite and liberal democrats would argue that the risk is too elite ...
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