Ideologies-fascism - Fascism & Nazism Fascism...

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Unformatted text preview: Fascism & Nazism Fascism & Nazism Glorification of Power Fascism Fascism ► An ideology opposed to liberalism, socialism, conservatism, and communism, because they brought economic depression, political betrayal, national weakness, and moral decline. ► Aggressively nationalistic ideology. Roots of fascist thinking Roots of fascist thinking ► The work of Friedrich Nietzsche influenced fascists, particularly the view expressed here: Man does not search for happiness. Only the English liberal does that. Fascist ideology & Mussolini Fascist ideology & Mussolini ► Italian dictator Benito Mussolini coined the term in 1919, referring to the Roman symbol for “power through unity” – a bundle of reeds called “fasces,” individually weak but collectively strong. Fascism & totalitarianism Fascism & totalitarianism Fascist ideology is totalitarian, which means a political system that controls every aspect of life, so that there is no private sphere or independent organizations. Fascism extols aggressive nationalism and dominion of the totalistic state over the individual. Ideas of Mussolini Ideas of Mussolini Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them. To Mussolini, this distinguished the fascist state from repressive authoritarian governments, which sought to crush people, & not empower them. Other Fascist Regimes Other Fascist Regimes ► Spain under Franco ► Portugal under Salazar ► Germany under Hitler – the most extreme Regimes with fascist elements Regimes with fascist elements ► Argentina under Juan Peron (1946­55) ► Chile under Pinochet (1973­1990) ► Iraq under Saddam Hussein (1970s – 2003) ► South Africa apartheid regime for Blacks (1945­1990) Fascist Principles Fascist Principles ► Anti­individualistic ► Anti­democratic ► Anti­egalitarian ► Anti­capitalist ► Anti­pacifist ► Anti­internationalist ► Anti­conservative ► Anti­intellectual Nazism Nazism Fascism taken to its extreme form. Racist and anti­Semitic elements that did not appear in Italian fascism. Adolph Hitler Adolph Hitler ► Hitler considered himself superior, even though he was a drifter & failed artist during his youth. ► A corporal during WWI, he was devastated by Germany’s loss & blamed it on the Jews. ► He started his political career at age 30, joining the German Workers Party. He had exceptional speaking skills & came to be revered by others in the party. He was chosen its leader in 1921, and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party. Adolph Hitler Adolph Hitler ► He mounted a coup attempt against the Weimer Republic in 1923; it failed. He broke from the right wing establishment when they didn’t back him. ► It was at this point that he became convinced that he should become dictator of Germany, even though he lacked education and social status. ► By 1933, Hitler’s party was the largest in the country and he was Reich Chancellor. Mein Kampf (1924) Mein Kampf Hitler wrote this while serving a 9­month prison sentence after the unsuccessful coup attempt. He had been sentenced to 5 years but authorities sympathized with his extreme ethnic nationalism. Mein Kampf (1924) Mein Kampf The title means My Struggle, and it expounds on Hitler’s anti‑Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Racial Theory in Mein Kampf Racial Theory in ► That the blood of the highest race must be kept pure from intermingling with other races if human culture is to advance; corruption of blood leads to the destruction of culture. Nazi racial theory Nazi racial theory Three races: ► Aryans (Germanic) – culture creating ► Jews – culture destroying ► Middle – culture maintaining At various levels of hierarchy between Aryans and Jews. Nazi racial theory Nazi racial theory ► The belief that Germans were threatened the most from an internal enemy led to the Holocaust, the extermination of 6 million Jewish people in Europe. ► Everything was sublimated to the need to purify the German race. In fact, it even drove Nazi policies that worked against the war effort. Nazi racial theory Nazi racial theory ► The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. defines the Holocaust as: “the state­sponsored systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945.” ► The Nazi leaders used this euphemism to describe the policy: "The Final Solution to the Jewish Problem." Genocide Genocide ► Nazi extermination of the Jews is considered to be Genocide ‑ the systematic extermination of a whole people or race. ► The U.S. government has called the killing of Sudanese in Darfur by government­ sponsored militia a “genocide.” Other victims of Nazi ideology Other victims of Nazi ideology ► The Nazis also persecuted and killed Gypsies, non­Jewish Polish people, homosexuals and people with disabilities as racial purity reasons. ► They killed political dissidents, Soviet prisoners of war, Freemasons and Jehovah’s Witnesses for political reasons. Nazi racial theory Nazi racial theory Hitler wrote, “The Jew has always been a people with definite racial characteristics and never a religion.” To him, the Jewish religion is not the problem. If their religious faith is not a threat, why should Non­Jews worry about Jews? The Jewish “Problem” The Jewish “Problem” ► Seek to pollute Aryan blood. ► Cunning (not smart), with strong will to survive. ► Seek to destroy higher cultures. ► Not “idealistic;” no selfless or noble attitudes. ► No original contributions to art or science. ► In league with communists. ► Betrayed German state during WWI. ► Not human but subhuman. Questions from Mein Kampf Questions from ► How did Hitler make the argument about racial superiority? Questions from Mein Kampf Questions from ► 1. Natural law: “one of the most patent principles of Nature's rule: the inner segregation of the species of all living beings on this earth.” ► 2. History: historical experience offers countless proofs, e.g., the purity of the race in North America has led to greater achievements than in Central & South America. ► 3. Religion: “sin against the will of the creator. He refers to a sin against the will of eternal Providence.” Questions from Mein Kampf Questions from ► What metaphors does Hitler use to refer to the Jewish people? a horde of rats parasites in the body of other peoples subhuman Hitler and communism Hitler and communism ► Nothing socialist in NAZI policies. Very elitist. ► Communism was part of the Jewish conspiracy to destroy the Aryans. Marx was a Jew who extracted “the most essential poisons ”from the slowly decomposing world and brewed them into a concentrated solution to swiftly annihilate the independent existence of free nations... all in the service of his race.” Hitler and capitalism Hitler and capitalism ► Hitler did not like the bourgeoisie either. In fact, he scorned them for being only concerned with material comfort. He referred to middle class Germans as the “miserable army of our present­day shopkeepers.” Ideology matters Ideology matters Impact of ideology on our lives is not incidental or abstract. This is true of all ideologies but particularly clear in the example of Nazism. The following photos chosen to illustrate its impact. Some are graphic. Administrative details Administrative details Report by Himmler to Hitler: 363,211 Jews in Nazi­occupied USSR were murdered, Aug.­Nov. 1942 Glorification of racial superiority Glorification of racial superiority Nazi soldiers going to Poland. Sign reads: “We are going to Poland to strike out the Jews.” Treating Jews as subhuman Treating Jews as subhuman Nazi soldiers in Russia beating a Jewish man Treating Jewish prisoners as Treating Jewish prisoners as subhuman Men and boy in Poland, humiliated & waiting to be executed Pseudo­scientific elements Pseudo­scientific elements Phony “race theory” about Aryan superiority justified inhumane medical experiments. Auschwitz children subjected to medical tests Why is there neofascism? Why is there neofascism? ► What is the continuing appeal of fascist ideas? ► What elements of modern society may make these ideas more appealing? ...
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