The Roots of Islam - The Roots of Islam The Pre-Islamic...

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Unformatted text preview: The Roots of Islam The Pre-Islamic Arab Culture Muhammad Beliefs & Concepts Schools of Law Sunni vs. Shi’ite Sunni Islam Islam Pre-Islamic Arab Culture: – South Arabia Heavily populated by sedentary populations living in wealthy Heavily and powerful cities These bordered on two major two trade routes: – One was the ocean-trading route between Africa and India. One – Another was the land-based trade route up and down the coast of Another the Arabian peninsula. – North Arabia: In the east is a vast desert: Bedouins lived here in small, In tightly-knit tribal groups arid steppes in the west and the coast: Arabs here lived in sedentary and larger tribal groups sedentary These communities lived far apart and in relative isolation, These bedouins, in order to survive would engage in the “razzia”, or raid, upon sedentary populations in order to obtain goods Islam Islam – Religion Religion Polytheistic Polytheistic Pilgrimage routes to Mecca (the center of a cultic activity) Pilgrimage regulated by the powerful Quraysh tribe regulated – Politics: Region conquered by Alexander the Great (Seleucids) Region conquered by Romans The Diaspora led to Jewish migration away from Jerusalem The into Srabia into Once the Roman Empire was Christianized, Christian culture Once spread eastward to Byzantium and Arabia spread Muhammad: Muhammad: – Born around 570 C.E.. Born – Raised by his extended family after the death Raised of his parents – Began to have religious visions around age 40 Began – He would memorize the messages received He during these religious visions and teach them to followers to Islam Islam – Continued to receive these visions and Continued messages until his death in 632 C.E. messages – Preached the message that had received, namely that there was One God, In Mecca, the center of polytheism the – Was rejected and chased out of Mecca, Was fleeing to Medina (Yathrib) in 622 C.E. This migration was known as the “hijra”…the Islamic calendar dates the hijra as year one Islamic Islam Islam – In Medina, Muhammad set up a Islamic community In (umma) by entering into an agreement with Jewish tribes – The Quraysh followed him and engaged the Muslim The caravans in continuous battles: caravans The Battle of Badr (a Muslim victory) The Battle of the Trench (a stalemate) – The surrounding tribes converted to Islam and The isolated the Meccan community isolated – Eventually, they Meccans converted to Islam as well Islam Islam – Muhammad’s death Muhammad’s – No heir to his political leadership proclaimed – The tribes gathered together to elect Abu Bakr (a The Meccan Muslim) to the Caliphate The wars of the Riddah—Waged to consolidate Islam’s power in Arabia, converted the Arabs to the South power – The Umayyad Dynasty: Umar ibn al-Khattab—Extended Islam’s reach to Syria and Umar Jerusalem (a holy city to Muslims because of Muhammad’s visit there upon his “night journey”) visit Uthman ibn Affan– Began work on copying the revelations of Uthman the Prophet and assembling them into a single book: the Qur’an. Eventually assasinated. Islam Islam – Civil War The election of Ali (nephew to the Prophet), The The Shi’at Ali Shi’at Muwawiyyah Compromise The assassination of Ali Muawiyyah’s promise to hand over power to Muawiyyah’s Hassan, Ali’s son Hassan, Yazid’s ascension to the Caliphate Husayn (Ali’s younger son) and the battle of Husayn Karbala—Sunni and Shi’ite split Karbala—Sunni Islam Islam Sunni Islam: – Beliefs, Concepts, and Practices Islam's fundamental theological concept is tawhīd—the belief Islam's tawhīd—the that there is only one God Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet, although they reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity Islam embraces Judaism and Christianity as the precursors of Islam, they share a belief in one God but have strayed from the original message as proclaimed in both the Old and New Testaments New Muslims trace their lineage all the way back to Abraham, Muslims thus creating linkages to the concept of a “chosen people” thus Sunni Islam Sunni Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were Muslims revealed to Muhammad by God through the angel Gabriel To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are deficient because of language differences Muslims view Muhammad not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and Jesus and Sunni Islam Sunni Muhammad is viewed as merely the last and the Muhammad greatest in a series of prophets greatest Muslims believe in the "Day of Resurrection", or Muslims yawm al-Qiyāmah yawm Muslims believe in predestination, i.e. God has full Muslims knowledge and control over all that occurs knowledge Non-Muslim monotheists (Jews and Christians) are Non-Muslim dhimmi (People of the Book). As such, their traditions are to be respected and protected under Islamic Law. In return, the dhimmi must pay the jizyah (tribute tax). Sunni Islam Sunni Jihad—”Holy Struggle” – Greater Jihad: A personal struggle against sin – Lesser Jihad: A commitment to strive to spread the teachings of Islam, to remove obstacles Lesser wherever they might exist to the preaching of Islam, to defend Islam when oppressed wherever Sura– Consultation. Usually expressed as a political virtue. The wise leader always Sura– consults others (debate over how broad this consultation needs to be) before making his decisions. his Ijma– Consensus. Also expressed as a political virtue. Before making political Ijma– decisions, the wise ruler accepts the consensus of those he has consulted. decisions, Shari’a—Islamic Law (derived from the Qur’an and Hadith) Hadith-- The sayings of the Prophet. Hadith can be categorized with regards to its Hadith-authenticity into 5 types: authenticity – – – – – Sahih (authentic) Hasan (sound) Dha'eef (weak) Dha'eef Jiddan (very weak) Mawdhoo (fabricated). Mawdhoo Sunnah-- The way of the Prophet and his Companions (tradition) Sunnah-Fiqh-- Jurisprudence Madhhab-- School of jurisprudence Ijtihad: Independent Reasoning in legal decisions Dhimmi—Non-Muslim monotheists Sunni Islam Sunni The Five Pillars: – The Shahadah: The basic creed or tenet of Islam: "I testify that The there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed(although technically the Shi'a do not consider the shahadah to be a shahadah separate pillar, just a belief). separate – Salah: Ritual prayer, which must be performed five times a day. Salah: (However, the Shi'a are permitted to run together the noon with the afternoon prayers, and the evening with the night prayers). Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. In many Muslim countries, reminders called Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. – Zakat: Alms-giving. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. A fixed portion is spent to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. The zakat is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". – Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must Sawm: not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not Sawm obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly. Sunni Islam Sunni – The Hajj, which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu alThe Hajj which Dhu Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina. Every Muslim is expected to contribute in some way to a pilgrim on Hajj. Muslim – Sunni Schools of Law (Madhhab): The Hanafi Madhhab: Imam Abu Hanifa, who was the 'founder' of The the Hanafi school, lived in what is now modern-day Iraq. Among the four established Sunni schools of legal thought in Islam, the Hanafi school is the oldest, but it is generally regarded as the most liberal and as the one which puts the most emphasis on human reason. The Hanafi school also has the most followers among the four major Sunni schools. (Both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire were Hanafi so the Hanafi school is still widespread in their former lands). Sunni Islam Sunni The Maliki Madhhab: Imam Malik was born shortly thereafter The in Medina. This school differs from the three other schools of law in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. All four schools use the Qur'an as primary source, followed by the sunnah of Muhammad transmitted as hadith (sayings), ijma (consensus of the scholars) and Qiyas (analogy); the Maliki school, in addition, uses the practice of the people of Medina as a source. This source, according to Malik, sometimes supersedes hadith, because the practice of the people of Medina was considered "living sunnah The Shafi'i Madhhab: Imam Shafi'i was also taught by both Abu Hanifa's students and Imam Malik, and his respect for both men is also well-known. The Shāfi‘ī School of thought stipulates authority to four sources of jurisprudence, also known as the Usul al-fiqh. In hierarchical order the usul alusul fiqh consist of: the Quran, the Sunnah of Muhammad, ijma' (consensus), and qiyas (analogy). Sunni Islam Sunni The Hanbali Madhhab: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal studied under Hanbali Imam Shafi'i, and consequently there are many similarities between the two madhhabs. The following heirarchy of sources was madhhabs The acknowledged by the Hanbali school: – Divine text (the Quran and the Sunnah) was the first point of reference Divine was for all scholars of jurisprudence, and in this, Ahmad was not an exception. Whenever he noticed a divine textual evidence for an issue, he never referred to other sources, opinions of the Companions, scholars or resorted to analogical deduction (Qiyas). scholars – Verdicts issued by the companions were resorted to when no textual Verdicts evidence was found in the Quran or the Sunnah. The reasons for ranking the verdicts of the Companions after the Quran and the Sunnah are obvious: The Companions witnessed the revelation of the Quran, and its implementation by Muhammad, who advised the Ummah to adhere to the rightly-guided caliphs, hence, the companions ought to have a better understanding than the latter generations. Imam Ahmad, would likewise, never give precedence to a scholarly opinion or analogical deduction over that of the Companions’, to the extent that if they were divided into two camps over an issue, two different narrations would similarly be documented from Imam Ahmad. would Sunni Islam Sunni – In a case where the companions differed, he preferred In the opinion supported by the divine texts (the Quran and the the the Sunnah). the – In instances where none of the above was applicable, In Ahmad would resort to the mursal Hadith (with a link missing between the Successor and Muhammad or a weak hadith. However, the type of weak Hadith that Ahmad relied on was such that it may be regarded as fair hadith due to other evidences, not the type that is deemed “very weak” and thus unsuitable as an evidence for Law. Islam Islam Shi’ite Islam – Beliefs, Concepts and Practices: Shi’ites believe that the descendants from Shi’ites Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali (the Imams) were the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's Sunnah (traditions), and the most worthy of emulation. worthy Shi’ite Islam Shi’ite Theology of Shia (Usūl al-Dīn) Theology – Tawhīd: The Oneness of God Tawhīd: – Adalah: The Justice of God Adalah: – Nubuwwah: God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers Nubuwwah: to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace" ("submission to God")) prophets are Messengers which are appointed by Allah to bring the message of God to people and spread that message while Imam(leader) is appointed by Allah to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so. Also as Muhammed was the last messenger of God which means the message he brought was the last and final message to the people from Allah; none is supposed to bring a message from Allah after Muhammed, therefore, if people were left with the message alone, the true message could not survive long and would have undergone changes. Imams were therefore appointed to take care of the message and prevent people from going astray after the last prophet. – Imamah: God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a Imamah: prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. Shia believe in Twelve Imams, eleven of them were killed, but they believe their twelfth Imam is still alive, their history says that he disappeared after performing rituals of the eleventh Imam's (his father) death. He is still under 'ghaybat' or 'occultation' and will appear on the face of the earth to raise the truth and bring an end to tyranny and oppression – Qiyamah: At the end of this world, God will raise mankind for Judgement. Qiyamah: Shi’ite Islam Shi’ite Practices: – Salat — called "Namaaz" in Persian — (Prayer) – Performing the five daily Salat prayers (Prayers can be made up for at night) – Sawm — called "Roozeh" in Persian — (Fast) – fasting during the Islamic holy Sawm lunar month of Ramadhan (Able to eat after the sun goes down) – Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (once in a lifetime) Hajj – Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax (2.5% of your wealth every year should Zakat go to the poor) – Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax to the Imam Khums – Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please the Almighty. The greater, or internal Jihad Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihad bil qalam) and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of Jihad. – Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf– commanding what is good Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf– – Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil Nahi-Anil-Munkar – Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt (family of the Prophet) and their followers Tawalla – Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt Tabarra Shi’ite Islam Shi’ite Schools of Law: – Ja’fari: Ja'fari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shi'a Ja’fari: Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. This school has two main branches 6th Usuli: This school of thought utilize Ijtihad by adopting Usuli: reasoned argumentation in finding the laws of Islam. Usulis Usulis emphasize the role of Mujtahid who was capable of independently interpreting the sacred sources as an intermediary of the Hidden Imam and , thus, serve as a guide to the community.This meant that legal interpretations were kept flexible to take accout of changing conditions and the dynimics of the times. This school of thought is predominant among most of Shi'a. Akhbari: This school of thought take a restrictive approach to ijtihad. Akhbaris are located in Basra, its environs and Bahrain. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course POL 2 taught by Professor Robertbrown during the Fall '05 term at Riverside Community College.

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