Developmental Psychology 09-22-08

Developmental Psychology 09-22-08 - Developmental...

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Unformatted text preview: Developmental Psychology Developmental Mrs. Ina Creekbaum, M.S. September 22, 2008 Riverside Community College The What of Developmental Psychology Developmental What? Human Development is the scientific study of ways Human in which people change, as well as of characteristics that remain fairly stable throughout life. that Key Principles of Developmental Psychology: Development is lifelong. Development depends on history and context. Development is multidimensional and Development multidirectional. multidirectional. Development is pliable or plastic. The How of Developmental Psychology Developmental How? Descriptionan attempt to accurately portray behavior. an Explanationthe uncovering of possible causes of behavior. the Predictionforecasting later development on the basis of earlier or present development. development. Modificationintervention to promote optimal development. intervention Psychoanalytic Approach- Freud Psychoanalytic Behavior is controlled by powerful unconscious urges. Id: Id: Impulse; seeks immediate satisfaction Impulse; Ego: Ego: Reality; represents reason Reality; Superego: Superego: Right & Wrong; conscience, socially approved values Right Psychosexual Stage Functions Psychosexual Oral-(birth to 12-18 months) to obtain an appropriate amount of sucking, eating, biting and talking. biting Anal- (12-18 months to 3 years) successful toilet training. Phallic- (3 to 6 years) healthy development of sexual interest. Latency- (6 years to puberty) time of relevant calm between more turbulent stages. Genital- (puberty through adulthood) reemergence of phallic stage, channeled into mature reemergence adult sexuality. adult Psychosocial Stages- Erikson Psychosocial Personality is influenced by society and develops Personality through a series of crises. through Stage (age) Crisis Strength Crisis Strength 1 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 11 12 to 18 Trust-vs.-Mistrust Hope Autonomy-vs.-Shame Willpower Initiative-vs.-Guilt Purpose Industry-vs.-Inferiority Competence Identity-vs.-Identity Confusion Fidelity 18 to 35 35 to 65 Over 65 Intimacy-vs.-Isolation Love Generativity-vs.-Stagnation Care Integrity-vs.-Despair Wisdom Cognitive Development- Piaget Cognitive Qualitative changes in thought occur between infancy Qualitative and adolescence. Person is active initiator of development. development. Sensorimotor- (birth to 2 years) Infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation Infant to the environment through sensory and motor activity. to Preoperational- (2 to 7 years) Child develops a representational system and uses symbols to Child represent people, places and events. Thinking is still not logical. logical. Cognitive Development- Piaget Cognitive Concrete- (7 to 11 years) Child can solve problems logically if they are focused Child on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly. on Formal Operations- (11 years through (11 adulthood) adulthood) Person can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical Person situations, and think about possibilities. Cognitive Development Cognitive Assimilation: Taking in information and incorporating it into existing Taking cognitive structures. cognitive EX: Learns what a dog is, sees a cat and calls it a dog. Accommodation: Changing one’s cognitive structures to include the new Changing knowledge. knowledge. EX: Learns that cat meows and does not bark and learns EX: that it is not a dog. SocioCultural Theory- Vygotsky SocioCultural Cognitive growth is a collaborative process. Zone of Proximal Development- gap between Development gap what the child is already able to do and what they are not quite ready to accomplish by themselves. Scaffolding- the temporary support that parents, Scaffolding the teachers or others give a child to do a task until the child can do it alone. the Behavioral Approach- Skinner Skinner OPERANT CONDITIONING People are responders; the environment control People behavior. behavior. Positive Reinforcement: consists of giving a reward; money, food or praise. consists giving Ex: Giving money for a cleaned room. Negative Reinforcement: taking away something the individual does not like. away Encourages repetition of a behavior by removing an aversive event. Ex: Ceasing nails on a chalkboard when the class is silent. Ex: Behavioral Approach- Bandura Bandura SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEARNING People acquire new abilities through observational People learning. learning. Children actively advance their own social learning Children by choosing models to imitate. by Bioecological Theory- Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Every biological organism develops within the Every context of ecological systems that support or stifle its growth. stifle Microsystem- involves personal, face-to-face relationships, and bi-directional influences flow back and forth. EX: home, school, work. and Mesosystem- the interaction of two or more microsystems that contain the developing person. EX: home-school, home-work. EX: Bioecological Theory- Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Exosystem- linkages between two or more settings but at least one of these settings does not contain the developing person and thus affects him/her only indirectly. EX: parents workplace, mass media. EX: Macrosystem- overall cultural patterns. EX: dominant values, beliefs, and customs of a culture or subculture. culture Developmental Systems- Lerner Developmental Life Course Theory- Elder Evolutionary Developmental Psychology- Bjorklund Development occurs as an individual’s Development characteristics interact with that person’s context. No single level of organization is seen as the primary or the ultimate causal influence on behavior and development. causal A sequence of socially defined, age-graded events sequence and roles that individuals enact over time. and Assumes our physiological and psychological systems Assumes resulted from evolution by selection. resulted ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course PSY 9 taught by Professor Mtso during the Fall '10 term at Riverside Community College.

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