Unformatted text preview: Developmental Psychology
Mrs. Ina Creekbaum, M.S.
September 22, 2008
Riverside Community College The What of
Human Development is the scientific study of ways
in which people change, as well as of characteristics
that remain fairly stable throughout life.
that Key Principles of Developmental Psychology:
Development is lifelong.
Development depends on history and context.
Development is multidimensional and
Development is pliable or plastic. The How of
Descriptionan attempt to accurately portray behavior.
Explanationthe uncovering of possible causes of behavior.
Predictionforecasting later development on the basis of earlier or present
Modificationintervention to promote optimal development.
intervention Psychoanalytic Approach- Freud
Behavior is controlled by powerful unconscious urges.
Impulse; seeks immediate satisfaction
Reality; represents reason
Right & Wrong; conscience, socially approved values
Right Psychosexual Stage Functions
Psychosexual Oral-(birth to 12-18 months)
to obtain an appropriate amount of sucking, eating,
biting and talking.
Anal- (12-18 months to 3 years)
successful toilet training.
Phallic- (3 to 6 years)
healthy development of sexual interest.
Latency- (6 years to puberty)
time of relevant calm between more turbulent stages.
Genital- (puberty through adulthood)
reemergence of phallic stage, channeled into mature
adult Psychosocial Stages- Erikson
Personality is influenced by society and develops
through a series of crises.
2 to 3
4 to 5
6 to 11
12 to 18 Trust-vs.-Mistrust
Identity-vs.-Identity Confusion Fidelity 18 to 35
35 to 65
Over 65 Intimacy-vs.-Isolation
Wisdom Cognitive Development- Piaget
Qualitative changes in thought occur between infancy
and adolescence. Person is active initiator of
Sensorimotor- (birth to 2 years)
Infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation
to the environment through sensory and motor activity.
to Preoperational- (2 to 7 years)
Child develops a representational system and uses symbols to
represent people, places and events. Thinking is still not
logical. Cognitive Development- Piaget
Concrete- (7 to 11 years)
Child can solve problems logically if they are focused
on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly.
on Formal Operations- (11 years through
Person can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical
situations, and think about possibilities. Cognitive Development
Taking in information and incorporating it into existing
EX: Learns what a dog is, sees a cat and calls it a dog.
Changing one’s cognitive structures to include the new
EX: Learns that cat meows and does not bark and learns
that it is not a dog. SocioCultural Theory- Vygotsky
Cognitive growth is a collaborative process.
Zone of Proximal Development- gap between
what the child is already able to do and what
they are not quite ready to accomplish by
Scaffolding- the temporary support that parents,
teachers or others give a child to do a task until
the child can do it alone.
the Behavioral Approach- Skinner
People are responders; the environment control
consists of giving a reward; money, food or praise.
Ex: Giving money for a cleaned room.
taking away something the individual does not like.
Encourages repetition of a behavior by removing an aversive
Ex: Ceasing nails on a chalkboard when the class is silent.
Ex: Behavioral Approach- Bandura
SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEARNING
People acquire new abilities through observational
Children actively advance their own social learning
by choosing models to imitate.
by Bioecological Theory- Bronfenbrenner
Every biological organism develops within the
context of ecological systems that support or
stifle its growth.
Microsystem- involves personal, face-to-face
relationships, and bi-directional influences flow back
and forth. EX: home, school, work.
Mesosystem- the interaction of two or more
microsystems that contain the developing person.
EX: home-school, home-work.
EX: Bioecological Theory- Bronfenbrenner
Exosystem- linkages between two or more
settings but at least one of these settings does
not contain the developing person and thus
affects him/her only indirectly.
EX: parents workplace, mass media.
Macrosystem- overall cultural patterns.
EX: dominant values, beliefs, and customs of a
culture or subculture.
culture Developmental Systems- Lerner
Life Course Theory- Elder
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology- Bjorklund
Development occurs as an individual’s
characteristics interact with that person’s context. No single
level of organization is seen as the primary or the ultimate
causal influence on behavior and development.
A sequence of socially defined, age-graded events
and roles that individuals enact over time.
Assumes our physiological and psychological systems
resulted from evolution by selection.
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course PSY 9 taught by Professor Mtso during the Fall '10 term at Riverside Community College.
- Fall '10
- Developmental Psychology