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Bio1_05_Chemistry - 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 7 1 2 8 1 2 Overview Ch...

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1 Overview Ch. 2: Basic Chemistry – Chemical elements – Compounds & molecules – Water – Acids & bases Chemical Elements • Elements – Substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances • Atoms – Smallest part of an element with properties of that element Elements in Cells 96% : H, C, N, O Remaining 4%: Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe, I, Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, + trace Atoms • Atom – Proton ( p + ) – Neutron ( n 0 ) – Electron ( e - ) in electron shell Mass number – # protons + # neutrons Atomic number – # protons Example: Carbon Periodic Table Appendix D of text – Partial: Figure 2.3 Atomic mass – Average AMU for all isotopes Atoms in same group – Similar binding characteristics – Group VIII: noble gases Isotopes Differ in # neutrons Radioactive isotopes* Low levels of radiation – Tracers – Image body’s organs and tissues High levels of radiation – Irradiation to kill pathogens – Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells Electrons & Energy • Electrons – Not possible to determine exact location Electron shells = energy levels – The Bohr model – 1 st level: 2 e - – 2 nd & 3 rd levels: 8 e - – Valence shell = outer shell Octet rule – Outer shell most stable when full 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 7 1 2 8 1 2
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2 – Note on ions Assignment 1 Think, Pair, Share Topic: Silicon (Si) has an atomic number of 14.
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