Bio36_05_Ecosystems - Overview Ch 5 Ecosystems Trophic...

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1 Overview • Ch. 5: Ecosystems – Trophic Relationships – Energy Flow – Biomes – Disturbance – Ecosystem Sustainability Trophic Relationships • Trophic level – Steps from energy input • Producers – Closest to energy input – 1 st trophic level – Photosynthesis/ Chemosynthesis Energy Flow • Autotrophs – Capture energy •Photosynthesis – Producers • Heterotrophs – Extract energy •Cellular respiration – Consumers •Herbivores (primary) •Carnivores (2°, 3°, etc.) •Omnivores •Detritivores – Decomposers (O 2 or not) Limits of Trophic Levels • Biomass pyramid – ~10% transferred to next level •What happens to the remaining 90%? •Toxins may accumulate (biomagnify or bioaccumulate) • Biomass is not always the best measure of productivity – Shorter life cycle may lower standing-crop biomass •E.g., Aquatic systems – Waste, especially from cellulose (fiber) Ecosystems to Biomes • Climate is affected by: – Solar radiation – Prevailing winds – Elevation Factors Affecting Biomes • Biomes change with latitude • Biomes change with altitude • Also affected by precipitation – E.g., distance from oceans Biome Patterns • Temperature • Precipitation 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 6 7 8 1 2
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2 Distribution of Biomes Terrestrial Biomes • Tundra • Coniferous forests • Temperate deciduous forests • Tropical forests • Shrublands • Grasslands • Deserts Tundra • Arctic tundra – Long winters, short summers – 20% of land’s surface – Permafrost – Available soil is nutrient-poor – No trees • Alpine tundra Coniferous Forests
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Bio36_05_Ecosystems - Overview Ch 5 Ecosystems Trophic...

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