Bio36_09_Development - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 Overview Ch....

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1 Overview – Reassessing the Demographic Transition – Promoting Development – Social Modernization Demographic Transition • Goal – Complete demographic transition – Avoid the poverty-population trap • Conflicting theories – Speed economic development •Population growth may naturally slow •Bring down birthrates •Economic development may follow Population Conferences • 1974: Bucharest, Romania – U.S.: family planning – Developing nations: economic development • 1984: Mexico City – U.S.: economic development – Developing nations: family planning • 1994: Cairo – General agreement •Development must be linked to poverty •Poverty is an affront to human dignity •Only sustainable development can prevent a future of impoverishment Demographic Window • Dependency ratio is lowest – Demographic dividend – $$ spent on economic growth & poverty • High TFR correlates with low per capita income Large Families • Why large families? – Security in old age – Children help work – Cultural status of women – Lack access to contraceptives • The poverty cycle • TFR declines when development provides – Security in old age – Education for children – Access to contraceptives Promoting Development • Good news – Economic progress •Extreme poverty: 42% b 21.3% of developing world’s population – Fertility declines 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 7 8 1
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2 • Bad news – 1.2 billion: < $1.25/day – ~ 1 billion: lack clean water – > 1 billion: urban slums – > 1 billion: malnourished Millennium Development Goals • Achieve universal primary education • Reduce child mortality
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Bio36_09_Development - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 Overview Ch....

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