Bio36_10_Water - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 7 1 2 Overview Ch 10...

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1 Overview Ch. 10: Water – Water: A Vital Resource – Hydrologic Cycle – Water Management – Water Stewardship: Supply & Public Policy The Aral Sea • 4 th largest lake on Earth, now lost 90% – Water from rivers diverted for irrigation – Inflowing water reduced to zero by the early 1980s – Salinity: 3x ocean – Fishing industry collapsed – Health impacts of dust – Local climate change Small Aral recovering – $85 million restoration project Water: A Vital Resource 75% of Earth’s surface – 95.7% salt water – 1.7% polar ice – 0.77% accessible fresh water •Limiting resource Renewable resource – Hydrologic cycle powered by the sun Developed countries – Infrastructure to control water Developing countries – Waterborne diseases: 1.6 million deaths/year •Lack safe drinking water •Lack adequate sanitation The Hydrologic Cycle Green water – Water vapor Blue water – Liquid water • Evaporation – Transpiration – Humidity: vapor in air •Relative humidity (%) • Condensation – Clouds, fog, dew by aerosols – Purification • Precipitation Gravitational flow 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 Precipitation Adiabatic cooling – Warm air rises, cools while expanding due to lower atmospheric pressure at higher altitude •Condensation & cloud formation barb2right precipitation •E.g., leading edge of a cold front Adiabatic warming – Cold air descends, compressed by higher air pressure in the lower atmosphere Effect of Solar Radiation Solar energy – Directly onto equator 7 1 2 8 9 1
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2 – Directly onto equator •Tropics: 23.5 ° N to 23.5 ° S – Glancing at poles – Seasons due to tilt of earth Global wind circulation – Warm, wet air rises at equator & cools – Cool, dry air descends ~ 30 ° N & S (deserts) – Wet air rises at ~ 60 ° N & S – Cold, dry air descends at poles – Earth’s rotation affects wind patterns Convection Currents
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