Bio36_10_Water - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 7 1 2 Overview Ch. 10:...

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1 Overview • Ch. 10: Water – Water: A Vital Resource – Hydrologic Cycle – Water Management The Aral Sea • 4 th largest lake on Earth, now lost 90% – Water from rivers diverted for irrigation – Inflowing water reduced to zero by the early 1980s – Salinity: 3x ocean – Fishing industry collapsed – Health impacts of dust – Local climate change • Small Aral recovering – $85 million restoration project Water: A Vital Resource • 75% of Earth’s surface – 95.7% salt water – 1.7% polar ice – 0.77% accessible fresh water •Limiting resource • Renewable resource – Hydrologic cycle powered by the sun • Developed countries – Infrastructure to control water • Developing countries – Waterborne diseases: 1.6 million deaths/year •Lack safe drinking water •Lack adequate sanitation The Hydrologic Cycle • Green water – Water vapor • Blue water – Liquid water • Evaporation – Transpiration – Humidity: vapor in air •Relative humidity (%) • Condensation – Clouds, fog, dew by aerosols – Purification • Precipitation • Gravitational flow 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 Precipitation • Adiabatic cooling – Warm air rises, cools while expanding due to lower atmospheric pressure at higher altitude •Condensation & cloud formation b precipitation •E.g., leading edge of a cold front • Adiabatic warming – Cold air descends, compressed by higher air pressure in the lower atmosphere Effect of Solar Radiation • Solar energy 7 1 2 8 9 1
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2 – Directly onto equator •Tropics: 23.5 ° N to 23.5 ° S – Glancing at poles – Seasons due to tilt of earth • Global wind circulation – Cool, dry air descends ~ 30 ° – Wet air rises at ~ 60 ° – Cold, dry air descends at poles – Earth’s rotation affects wind patterns
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Bio36_10_Water - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 7 1 2 Overview Ch. 10:...

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