Bio36_12_Food - 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 Overview Ch 12 Food...

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1 Overview Ch. 12: Food – Major Patterns of Food Production – From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution – Food Distribution & Trade – Hunger, Malnutrition, & Famine Major Patterns of Food Production Modern industrialized agriculture Green Revolution Subsistence agriculture – Developing world Animal farming • Biofuels Modern Industrialized Agriculture • Traditional barb2right modern • Infrastructure – E.g., roads & banks • Machinery – Fossil fuel dependence Land under cultivation – 987 million acres – Expansion into forests & wetlands – Conservation Reserve Program Chemical fertilizers crop yields • Pesticides – Pest resistance • Irrigation – Unsustainable use of groundwater High-yielding varieties of plants The Green Revolution High-yielding varieties & methods – Developed countries barb2right developing countries •Latin America, later Asia • Impacts – More varieties still being developed •Resistance to diseases, pests, & climatic stresses •Benefits for Africa & Middle East – Without the Green Revolution •Crop yields would have been lower •More land would be in production Subsistence Agriculture Subsistence farming in the developing world – Feeds most of the world’s rural poor •Best for areas with low population density •Often on marginally productive land – Swidden agriculture Sub-Saharan Africa – Low crop yields •Rural farmers lack high-yield seeds & fertilizer – Rapid population growth •Poverty, hunger, high child mortality – Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa •Crop scientist improve traditional food crops •Improve irrigation, soil health, ag. markets 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2
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2 Animal Farming Livestock industry – Sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo, & poultry Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) – 70% of grain crop in U.S. goes to animals – Run-off of wastes – Diseases •Antibiotics in feed
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