Bio36_14_FossilFuels - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Overview Ch. 14:...

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1 Overview • Ch. 14: Energy from Fossil Fuels – Exploiting Crude Oil – Other Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuel Energy Sources • Coal – Burned for steam power •Air pollution • Oil – Internal combustion engine – 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill •4.9 million barrels of crude oil • Natural gas – Mostly methane •Piped to consumers •Burns cleaner (just CO 2 ) Electrical Power Production • Electrical power – Primary energy source b point of use • Electricity – Energy carrier – Electric current = flow of electrons •In a wire •Energy lost in transfer (3 units energy create 1 unit electric power) • Generators – Electric generator •Coil of wire that rotates in a magnetic field •Mechanical energy b electric energy – Turbogenerators •Generator + turbine (paddle wheel) Fluctuation in Demand • Utility companies – Linked together in pools • Demand cycle – Baseload – Reserve capacity •Gas turbines, diesel plants, pumped-storage hydroelectric power • Blackout – Shutdown of baseload plant •Smart-grid needed Using Electricity – Expensive way to heat homes • Efficiency – Only 30 -35% – Conversion losses •Condenser dissipates heat into environment 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 1 2 6 1 2
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2 •Cooling towers or body of water (thermal pollution) – Transmission losses •To end users by connecting wires Energy Source to Energy Use • Energy uses – Transportation •Petroleum – Industrial processes – Electric power generation •Coal •Nuclear •Others • Increasing efficiency – Conservation reserve Exploiting Crude Oil • U.S. reserves – 66%: foreign sources •Trade imbalances •Military actions •Economic disruptions •Coastal oil spills • Fossil fuel formation •Pressure & heat convert to fossil fuels – Coal: highly compressed – Oil: 7,500 – 15,000 ft. •Higher temperature & pressure
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Bio36_14_FossilFuels - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Overview Ch. 14:...

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