Bio36_17_EnvHazards - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Overview Ch. 17:...

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1 Overview – Long-term trends in pollution – Pathways of risk – Risk assessment Long-Term Trends in Pollution • Pollution – Presence of a substance that produces undesirable environmental and health effects •Due to chemical composition or quantity •Prevents the functioning of natural processes • In the 20 th century – Volumes of pollutants released ↑↑↑ by huge amounts – Shift from gross excesses to microtoxicity – Industrial pollutants shifted from developed to developing countries – Effects shifted from local to global • Pollutants – By-products of other activities – Many nonbiodegradable • General strategy – Identify cause – Identify source – Clean up – Develop pollution-control strategies – Develop alternatives Environmental Hazards • Hazard: anything that can cause – Injury, disease, or death to humans – Damage to personal or public property – Deterioration or destruction of environment • Vulnerability – Some people, especially the poor, are more vulnerable to certain hazards • Risk: probability of suffering from hazard – Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability Health • WHO: well-being • Absence of disease (easier to measure) – Morbidity: incidence of disease in a population – Mortality: incidence of death in a population • Epidemiology Public Health • U.S.: CDC – Other countries: ministry of health • Life expectancy – Universal indicator of health – Gradual increase – Lower in developing countries due to infectious diseases Environmental Hazards • Cultural hazards – Risky behaviors • Biological hazards – Pathogens 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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2 • Physical hazards – Natural disasters • Chemical hazards – Toxicity Cultural Hazards • Influenced by choice – 40% of deaths in U.S. • Tobacco use
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 36 taught by Professor Teresafinnern during the Fall '11 term at Riverside Community College.

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Bio36_17_EnvHazards - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Overview Ch. 17:...

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