Bio36_19_AirPollution - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 Overview...

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1 Overview • Ch. 19: Atmospheric Pollution – Formation of air pollution – Sources of air pollutants – Impacts of air pollutants – Controlling air pollution – Destruction of the ozone layer Atmosphere • Components – 78.08% N 2 – 20.95% O 2 – 0.93% Ar – 0.04% CO 2 – 0 – 4% H 2 O – 40 trace gases • Pollutants – Natural – Anthropogenic • Most pollutants are in the troposphere – Cleansing mechanisms – Some move to stratosphere •Resistant to cleansing • Level of air pollution – Amount entering air – Dispersal area – Removal mechanisms Atmospheric Cleansing • Hydroxyl radical – Oxidizes many gaseous pollutants – Products flushed by precipitation – Important for cleansing pollutants from anthropogenic sources • Sea salts – Aerosol b raindrop formation • Sunlight – Breaks apart organic molecules Smogs • Industrial smog – In cities using coal power since the 1800s – 1948 Donora incident – China, India, Korea, etc. • Photochemical smog – Automobile exhaust + sunlight • Normal conditions – Warm air carries pollutants upward • Temperature inversion – Cooler air below warm air traps pollutants – Topography can intensify smog • Atmospheric brown clouds – 1 km to 3 km blanket of pollution – Major dimming 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2
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2 rainfall – Solar heating •Shrinking glaciers – Weakening summer monsoon health effects Major Air Pollutants • Primary pollutants – Particulates (PM) – Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) – Carbon monoxide (CO) – Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) – Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) – Lead (Pb) – Air toxics – Radon (Rn) • Secondary pollutants – Ozone – Peroxyacetyl nitrates – Sulfuric acid – Nitric acid Tracking Pollutants • Products of: – Combustion – Evaporation – Strong winds • National emissions •Clean Air Act regulations since 1970 • Toxics • Radon – Spontaneous decay of material in rocks Secondary Pollutants • Photochemical oxidants
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Bio36_19_AirPollution - 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 Overview...

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