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Unformatted text preview: 1 Overview Ch. 22: Hazardous Chemicals Toxicology & chemical hazards Disposal of hazardous waste Cleaning up toxic sites Managing current toxic chemicals & wastes Environmental justice Pollution prevention Contaminants in the Arctic Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Persistence Biomagnification Long-range transport Cold condensation Global air patterns carry semivolatile chemicals to the Arctic Condense on snowpack Washed into waterways Health effects Immune-system disorders Disruption of hormones Gender imbalance in births Hazardous Chemicals Toxicology Study of harmful effects of chemicals Acute toxicity Effects of chronic exposure Carcinogenic potential Risk assessment of hazardous chemicals Dose Exposure level x time Response Effect of chemical Exposure Workplace, food, water, environment Threshold level No ill effects below 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Hazardous Material: HAZMAT EPA categories Ignitability E.g., gasoline Corrosivity E.g., acids Reactivity May explode or create toxic fumes with water E.g., explosives Toxicity Injurious to health E.g., pesticides Radioactive materials Sources of Chemicals Total product life cycle Many stages 6 1 2 7 2 Raw materials b final disposal Sources of Chemicals Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Annual record of releases of ~650 chemicals Small businesses not included (unknown) Total releases 61% EPCRA (1986) Industries required to report releases of toxic chemicals to the environment Pollution Prevention Act (1990) Collection of data on toxic chemicals treated on-site, recycled, or combusted for energy 8 1 2 Threat from Toxic Chemicals Heavy metals Most dangerous: Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Cr, Zn, Cu...
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- Fall '11