Bio36_22_ToxicWaste - 1 Overview • Ch 22 Hazardous...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Overview • Ch. 22: Hazardous Chemicals – Toxicology & chemical hazards – Disposal of hazardous waste – Cleaning up toxic sites – Managing current toxic chemicals & wastes – Environmental justice – Pollution prevention Contaminants in the Arctic • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) – Persistence – Biomagnification – Long-range transport • Cold condensation – Global air patterns carry semivolatile chemicals to the Arctic – Condense on snowpack – Washed into waterways • Health effects – Immune-system disorders – Disruption of hormones •Gender imbalance in births Hazardous Chemicals • Toxicology – Study of harmful effects of chemicals •Acute toxicity •Effects of chronic exposure •Carcinogenic potential • Risk assessment of hazardous chemicals – Dose •Exposure level x time – Response •Effect of chemical – Exposure •Workplace, food, water, environment – Threshold level •No ill effects below 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Hazardous Material: HAZMAT • EPA categories – Ignitability •E.g., gasoline – Corrosivity •E.g., acids – Reactivity •May explode or create toxic fumes with water •E.g., explosives – Toxicity •Injurious to health •E.g., pesticides • Radioactive materials Sources of Chemicals • Total product life cycle – Many stages 6 1 2 7 2 – Raw materials b final disposal Sources of Chemicals • Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) – Annual record of releases of ~650 chemicals •Small businesses not included (unknown) – Total releases ↓ 61% • EPCRA (1986) – Industries required to report releases of toxic chemicals to the environment • Pollution Prevention Act (1990) – Collection of data on toxic chemicals treated on-site, recycled, or combusted for energy 8 1 2 Threat from Toxic Chemicals • Heavy metals – Most dangerous: Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Cr, Zn, Cu...
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Bio36_22_ToxicWaste - 1 Overview • Ch 22 Hazardous...

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