Nerves Web - Sensory Monitor changes inside and outside...

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Nervous System Functions Sensory Monitor changes inside and outside Changes = stimuli Integration Process input, determine action Motor output Response Activate muscles or glands
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Functions of the Nervous System Figure 7.1
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Structural Classification of Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves outside CNS Spinal nerves Cranial nerves
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CNS integrates, PNS senses and responds Figure 7.2 Remember afferent? Sensory division of PNS = afferent Remember efferent? Motor division of PNS = efferent
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PNS motor functions subdivided into voluntary and involuntary Somatic nervous system = voluntary Autonomic nervous system = involuntary Parasympathetic = relaxed mode Sympathetic = fight or flight mode
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Support cells of CNS = neuroglia (4 types) 1. Astrocytes – control chemical environment of brain, link neurons to capillaries 2. Microglial – dispose of debris 3. Ependymal – line CNS cavities, circulate cerebrospinal fluid 4. Oligodendrocyte – form insulating myelin sheaths around nerve fibers
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Support Cells of PNS: 2 types Satellite cells Protect neuron cell bodies Schwann cells Form myelin sheath in the PNS
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Neurons = functional cells of nervous system i.e. transmit nerve signals Neuron anatomy Cell body— nucleus and metabolic center Processes— cell extensions Dendrites conduct signals toward cell body Axons – conduct signals away from body (usually)
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Axons end in axon terminals Axonal terminals contain vesicles of neurotransmitters (remember Ach?) Synaptic cleft— gap between adjacent neurons (or other cell) Synapse— junction between nerves
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Myelin sheath insulates nerve fibers and speeds up impulses Myelin sheath— whitish, fatty covering on axons ( Schwann cells in PNS ; oligodendrocytes in CNS) Nodes of Ranvier— gaps in myelin sheath along the axon Schwann Cells Impulses can travel 300mph!!!
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Figure 7.8a Structural Classification of Neurons Multipolar neurons —many extensions from cell body By far the most abundant!
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Structural Classification of Neurons Bipolar neurons— one axon and one dendrite Rare (in eyes and for smell) Figure 7.8b
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Structural Classification of Neurons Unipolar neurons— short single process leaving cell body Most sensory neurons Figure 7.8c
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are usually found in CNS Gray matter
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course ANATOMY 10 taught by Professor Prestongalusky during the Fall '11 term at Riverside Community College.

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Nerves Web - Sensory Monitor changes inside and outside...

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