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Skeletal Web - The Skeletal System Bones(skeleton Joints...

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The Skeletal System Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments
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Functions of Bones Support the body Protect organs Movement with skeletal muscles Store minerals and fats Blood cell formation
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Bones of the Human Body (about 206 total) Two bone tissue types Compact bone Solid & homogeneous Spongy bone Small strut-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b
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Compact bone = impact resistance Spongy bone = lightens load, but maintains strength Why 2 types?
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Bones can be Classified by Shape Figure 5.1
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Long Bones are Long… Shaft with heads at both ends Mostly compact bone Example: Femur Humerus
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Short Bones are Short… Generally cube- shape Mostly spongy bone Example: Carpals (wrist) Tarsals (foot)
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Flat Bones are … hmmm …. Thin, flattened, and usually curved Thin layers of compact bone surround spongy bone Example: Skull Ribs Sternum Flat
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Irregular Bones are bizarre looking… Irregular shape Don’t fit other categories Example: Vertebrae Hip bones
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Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis Shaft Compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Mostly spongy bone
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Bones are living tissue! Periosteum – fibrous connective tissue surrounding diaphysis Sharpey’s fibers - secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries – supply nutrients
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Bone is living tissue… Articular cartilage cushions joint surface Medullary cavity – yellow (fat) in adults, red (blood cells) in infants
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Bone Markings – include bumps and knobs for ligament/muscle attachment, joints Table 5.1 (1 of 2)
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Bone Markings – include holes and depressions for blood vessels and nerves Table 5.1 (2 of 2)
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Osteon (Haversian system) – unit of bone, central canal with bony rings (matrix with calcium) Pathways for blood and nerves = central (Haversian) canals and sideways perforating (Volkman’s) canals
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Lacunae – cavities for bone cells (osteocytes) Lacunae are sandwiched between lamellae Lamellae – layers (rings) around central canal
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That’s great, but how do those lonely bone cells receive nutrients and get rid of waste?
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