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ANS Ch 14 Web - Autonomic Nervous System(ANS The ANS =...

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The ANS = motor neurons Innervate smooth and cardiac muscle and glands Constantly make visceral adjustments (blood flow, heart rate, etc.) as needed Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Motor (efferent) division Sensory (afferent) division Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division
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Skeletal muscle Cell bodies in central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Effect + + Effector organs ACh ACh Smooth muscle (e.g., in gut), glands, cardiac muscle Ganglion Adrenal medulla Blood vessel ACh ACh ACh NE Epinephrine and norepinephrine Acetylcholine (ACh) Norepinephrine (NE) Ganglion Heavily myelinated axon Lightly myelinated preganglionic axon Lightly myelinated preganglionic axons Neuro- transmitter at effector Unmyelinated postganglionic axon Unmyelinated postganglionic axon Stimulatory Stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on neuro- transmitter and receptors on effector organs Single neuron from CNS to effector organs Two-neuron chain from CNS to effector organs SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC SYMPATHETIC Figure 14.2 Somatic vs. Autonomic Physiology
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Divisions of the ANS + Smooth muscle (e.g., in gut), glands, cardiac muscle Stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on neuro- transmitter and receptors on effector organs AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC SYMPATHETIC 1. Sympathetic division – fight or flight 2. Parasympathetic division – rest and digest Almost all visceral organs served by both, cause opposite effects
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Role of the Parasympathetic Division Body maintenance, conserves energy Relaxing, reading, after a meal… Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates low Gastrointestinal activity high Pupils constricted, lenses accommodated for close vision
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Role of the Sympathetic Division Mobilizes body Promotes adjustments for exercise, or when threatened Blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart Bronchioles dilate Liver releases glucose
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Salivary glands Eye Skin* Heart Lungs Liver and gall- bladder Genitals Pancreas Eye Lungs Bladder Liver and gall- bladder Pancreas Stomach Cervical Sympathetic ganglia Cranial Lumbar Thoracic Genitals Heart Salivary glands Stomach Bladder Adrenal gland Parasympathetic Sympathetic Sacral Brain stem L 1 T 1 Figure 14.3 ANS anatomy Parasympathetic Craniosacral Long preganglionic, short postganglionic neurons Ganglia near effectors Sympathetic Thoracolumbar Short preganglionic, long postganglionic neurons Ganglia close to spinal cord
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Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Division Outflow Pterygopalatine ganglion Eye Lacrimal gland Nasal mucosa Ciliary ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Submandibular ganglion Submandibular and sublingual glands CN III CN VII CN IX CN X Otic ganglion Parotid gland Heart Lung Liver and gallbladder Stomach
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