Urinary Ch25 Web - Organs of the Urinary System Kidneys...

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Organs of the Urinary System Kidneys – primary functional organs! Ureters – drain urine to bladder Urinary bladder – store urine Urethra – drain urine from body These are really just fancy plumbing
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Kidney Functions Remove toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions Regulate blood volume, chemical composition, and pH Gluconeogenesis (prolonged fasting) Endocrine functions Renin : regulates b.p. and kidney filtration rates Erythropoietin (EPO) : regulates RBC production Activation of vitamin D Kidney Woah, good thing we have kidneys…
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Kidney Anatomy Retroperitoneal (behind peritoneum), superior lumbar region Right kidney is lower than left Renal hilum leads to renal sinus (medial cavity) Ureters, vessels, and nerves enter/exit at hilum • Perirenal fat capsule Renal artery Renal vein • Fibrous capsule • Renal fascia anterior posterior 3 Supportive tissue layers Body of vertebra L 2 Peritoneum Peritoneal cavity (organs removed) Anterior Renal hilum
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Regions of the Kidney Figure 15.2b Renal cortex— outer region Renal medulla— inside cortex Medullary pyramids and renal columns
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Figure 25.3 Renal cortex Renal medulla Major calyx Papilla of pyramid Renal pelvis Ureter Minor calyx Renal column Renal pyramid in renal medulla Fibrous capsule (b) Diagrammatic view Internal Kidney Anatomy Papilla = tip of pyramid; drains urine into minor calyx Minor Calyces drain urine to major calyces Renal pelvis receives urine from calyces, empties into ureters
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Kidneys filter blood 1/4 th of blood supply passes through kidneys per minute! Renal artery = arterial blood supply (to be filtered) Renal vein = filtered blood drainage Filtration occurs across capillaries = glomerulus in between . . . Be sure to learn these vessels in lab…
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Nephrons = functional units of kidneys ~1 million per kidney Two main parts 1. Glomerulus : a tuft of fenestrated capillaries 2. Renal tubule : Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) Loop of Henle Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) Glomerulus + Glomerular Capsule = Renal Corpuscle
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Figure 25.5 Nephron epithelia Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerulus Microvilli Cortex Medulla Podocyte Basement membrane Mitochondria Highly infolded plasma membrane Proximal convoluted tubule Distal convoluted tubule • Descending limb Loop of Henle • Ascending limb • Glomerular capsule Renal corpuscle • Glomerulus Thick segment Collecting duct Intercalated cell Principal cell Thin segment Proximal convoluted tubule cells Glomerular capsule: parietal layer Glomerular capsule: visceral layer Distal convoluted tubule cells Loop of Henle (thin-segment) cells Collecting duct cells Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis Ureter Kidney Hug glomerulus capillaries Thick segment of loop = cuboidal/columnar
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2 types of nephrons… Cortical nephrons – found in cortex, most common (85%) Juxtamedullary nephrons
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Urinary Ch25 Web - Organs of the Urinary System Kidneys...

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