Lect. 16 exploitation web - Exploitative Interactions...

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1 Exploitative Interactions Exploitation : enhanced fitness for one; reduced fitness of the other. Predators kill/consume others. Parasitoid = insect larva that consumes host. Parasites live on host tissue/reduce host fitness, but don’t kill host usu. Pathogens induce disease.
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2 Exploitation links organisms in complex ways 10 million species on the planet (could be 40+ million) Each is food for others, host to numerous parasites & pathogens Could be 500+ million exploitation interactions (50xspecies)!
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3 Some Interactions are Mind- boggling! Some Parasites Alter Host Behavior Spring-Headed Worm (Acanthocephalans) cause amphipods to swim toward light; closer to predators. Parasite of pillbugs causes them to wander away from shelter. Some ant parasites make them look like berries! Oh glorious parasite – how devious of you!
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4 Parasites also trick plants. Rust fungus Puccinia monoica manipulates mustard plants ( Arabis spp.). Puccinia infects Arabis and produces pseudo- flowers Pseudoflowers secrete sugar, attract pollinators, allows fungus to reproduce sexually Flowers die or become sterile Parasites usually don’t kill host…Why not?
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5 Sometimes Exploitation affects Competition Park found competitive edge between flour beetles depended on presence of parasite T. castaneum
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  • Fall '11
  • PrestonGalusky
  • Exploitation, predators, Exploitation links organisms, Larger predator population, Reduced food supply

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