Groups - Groups Professor Jamie Gorman Doctoral Candidate...

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Groups Professor Jamie Gorman Doctoral Candidate Rutgers University at Newark Smith Hall Room 113 Gormanj@psychology.rutgers.edu
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What Defines a Group? Two or more people who are seen as a unit and interact with one another May be people who do or do not know each other May be defined by some common feature Group membership can be brief or extended
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Cohesion The extent to which members of a group are connected Shared intimacy, history, or background enhances cohesion Different group members serve different functions, as per individual needs and strengths “We are not simply in a group; we become part of it" (Duff, p. 157).
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Religious groups have a high level of cohesion because their members share a belief that the group has great importance. What else creates cohesion in a religious group?
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How does a Group Influence Individual Behavior? Social facilitation The tendency to have enhanced performance when around others Is not always the case – some performance is hindered by the presence of others Familiar or simple tasks tend to be facilitated Unfamiliar or difficult tasks tend to be hindered
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Experienced athletes typically feel more driven to succeed when they are being watched.
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How does a Group Influence Individual Behavior? (continued) What leads to arousal? 3 factors Mere presence The simple presence of others causes physical arousal Evaluation apprehension Feeling judged enhances self-consciousness This can lead to poorer performance
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How does a Group Influence Individual Behavior? (continued) What leads to arousal? 3 factors Distraction Distraction conflict theory The presence of others can take attention away from performance This can lead to poorer performance Is also affected by the difficulty of the task
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Social Facilitation: When the Going Gets Tough. The presence of an audience can propel us to excel at the task at hand if it is something we are comfortable doing. But research has shown that the less capable we are at a task, the more poorly we will perform in front of an audience.
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Groups - Groups Professor Jamie Gorman Doctoral Candidate...

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