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Chapter 5 Power Point Notes

Chapter 5 Power Point Notes - Chapter 5 Reactions Between...

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1 Chapter 5: Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions • A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which the two or more components mix freely • The solvent is taken as the component present in the largest amount • A solute is any substance dissolved in the solvent Formation of a solution of iodine molecules in ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol is the solvent and iodine the solute . Solutions have variable composition. They may be characterized using a solute- to-solvent ratio called the concentration . For example, the percentage concentration is the number of grams of solute per 100 g of solution • The relative amounts of solute and solvent are often given without specifying the actual quantities The dilute solution on the left has less solute per unit volume than the (more) concentrated solution on the right. Concentrated and dilute are relative terms. There is usually a limit to the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent – For example, 36.0 g NaCl is able to dissolve in 100 g of water at 20°C A solution is said to be saturated when no more solute can be dissolved at the current temperature • The solubility of a solute is the number of grams of solute that can dissolve in 100 grams of solvent at a given temperature Solubilities of some common substances 0.0015 at 25°C CaCO 3 Calcium carbonate 42 at 0°C 347 at 100°C NaOH Sodium hydroxide 35.7 at 0°C 39.1 at 100°C NaCl Sodium chloride Solubility (g/100 g water) Formula Substance A solution containing less solute is called unsaturated because it is able to dissolve more solute. Solubility usually increases with temperature Supersaturated solutions contain more solute than required for saturation at a given temperature They can be formed, for example, by careful cooling of saturated solutions Supersaturated solutions are unstable and often result in the formation of a precipitate
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