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1
• Orbitals are characterized by a set of three
quantum numbers:
n
= principle quantum number. All orbitals with the
save principle quantum number are in the same
shell
. Allowed values: the set of positive integers.
l
= secondary quantum number which divides the
orbitals in a shell into smaller groups called
subshells
. Allowed values: from 0 to (
n
–1)
.
m
l
= magnetic quantum number which divides the
subshells into individual orbitals. Allowed values:
integers from –
l
to +
l
.
Review from last day……….
• A fourth quantum number
is also required to
characterize an electron in
an orbital  the spin
quantum number,
m
s.
1 last quantum number.
.
spin quantum number
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Electron Configurations
•
Electron configuration
describes the distribution of
electrons among the various orbitals in the atom
• Electron configuration is represented in two ways
–
The spdf notation
uses numbers to designate a
principal shell and the letters to identify a subshell; a
superscript number indicates the number of electrons in
a designated subshell
–
An orbital diagram
uses boxes to represent orbitals
within subshells and arrows to represent electrons; each
box has two electrons.
The arrows represent electron
spins; opposing spins are paired together
Rules For Electron Configurations
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course CHEM 103 taught by Professor Jeffashley during the Fall '10 term at Philadelphia.
 Fall '10
 JeffAshley

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