15-5 & 15-6 Poisoning & burns

15-5 & 15-6 Poisoning & burns - Poisoning...

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Unformatted text preview: Poisoning Poisoning Can happen to any individual regardless of age Poison is any substance that causes a harmful reaction when applied or ingested Ways poisoning occurs Swallowing various substances Inhaling poisonous gases Injecting substances Contacting the skin with poison Poisoning Poisoning Immediate action is needed for any poisoning victim First aid varies depending on type of poison, injury involved and the method of contact Immediate care is needed before poison is absorbed into the body Call poison control center (PCC) or emergency medical services (EMS) immediately Poisoning Poisoning First aid for unconscious victim who swallowed poison Check for breathing and provide artificial respiration if needed Obtain medical help as soon as possible Position breathing victim on side so fluids can drain from the mouth Poisoning Poisoning Methods to induce vomiting in victim who swallowed poison Vomiting induced is PCC recommends or if medical help is not available Syrup of ipecac can be given to induce vomiting Medication to induce vomiting that is available in most drug stores Follow dosage recommended on bottle Followed by glasses of water Tickle back of victim’s throat Drink warm salt water Poisoning Poisoning Vomiting must NOT be induced in the following situations Unconscious victims Victims who swallowed an acid or alkali Victims who swallowed petroleum products Victims who are convulsing Victims with burns on lips or mouth Poisoning Poisoning Since vomiting removes only about one­half of the poison, the PCC may recommend counteracting the remaining poison with activated charcoal Available in most drug stores Helps absorb any remaining poison Follow directions on bottle for correct dosage Poisoning Poisoning First aid for poisoning by inhalation of dangerous gases (ex. Carbon monoxide) Immediately remove victim from the area before treatment Take a deep breath of fresh air before entering area Do not breathe gas while removing victim from area When victim is in safe area, check for breathing Provide artificial respiration if needed Obtain medical help immediately – death can occur quickly Poisoning Poisoning First aid for poisoning by contact with skin Wash with large amounts of water to dilute substance and remove it from the skin Remove any clothing or jewelry that contains substance Call PCC or EMS for additional information Obtain medical help as soon as possible for burns or injuries resulting from contact with the poison Poisoning Poisoning First aid for contact with poisonous plants Examples include poison ivy, oak or sumac Can cause a serious skin reaction Wash the area thoroughly with soap and water Remove any contaminated clothing If a rash or weeping sores develop, lotions such as Calamine or Caladryl, or a paste made from baking soda and water may help relieve the discomfort If the condition is severe and affects large areas of the body or face, obtain medical help Poisoning Poisoning First aid for poisoning due to injection Can be caused by insect bites, stings or snakebites If arm or leg is affected, position affected area below level of the heart Insect bite or sting Remove any embedded stinger with tweezer or by scraping with object like credit card Wash area well with soap and water Apply sterile dressing Apply cold pack to reduce swelling Poisoning Poisoning Snakebite Wash the wound and immobilize the injured area Position wound area lower than the heart if possible Do not cut the wound or apply a tourniquet Monitor breathing and give artificial respiration if necessary Obtain medical help as soon as possible Poisoning Poisoning Watch for allergic reaction in all victims Signs and symptoms Redness and swelling at site Itching, hives and pain Swelling of the throat Difficult or labored breathing Dizziness or change in level of consciousness Maintain respirations Obtain medical help as quickly as possible Poisoning Poisoning Other principles of care Observe for signs of shock and treat for shock if needed Try to remain calm and confident while providing care Reassure the victim as needed Act quickly, but in an organized, efficient manner Burns Burns Burn is an injury that can be caused by fire, heat, chemical agents, radiation and/or electricity Classifications of burns First degree or superficial Second degree or partial­thickness Third degree or full­thickness Burns Burns First degree or superficial Least severe type of burn Involves only the epidermis, the top layer of skin Usually heals in 5 to 6 days without permanent scarring Skin is reddened or discolored May have some mild swelling Victim feels pain Three common causes Overexposure to sun or mild sunburn Brief contact with hot objects or steam Exposure of skin to weak acid or alkali Burns Burns Second degree or partial­thickness Usually causes injury to top layers of skin and involves both epidermis and dermis Blister or vesicle forms Skin is red or has a mottled appearance Swelling occurs along with severe pain Surface of skin appears to be wet Common causes Excessive exposure to sunlamp or severe sunburn Contact with hot or boiling liquids Burns from fires Burns Burns Third degree or full­thickness Most severe type of burn Involves injury to all layers of skin in addition to underlying tissue Area has a white or charred appearance Can be extremely painful or relatively painless if nerve endings are destroyed Common causes Exposure to fire or flames Prolonged contact with hot objects Contact with electricity Immersion in hot or boiling liquids Burns Burns Objectives of treatment for burns Removing source of heat Cooling the skin Covering the burn Relieving pain Observing and treating for shock Preventing infection Burns Burns Medical help for burns Usually not required for first degree or superficial burns Should be obtained if: More than 15% of adult’s body burned More than 10% of child’s body burned Burns affect face or respiratory tract Victim is having difficulty breathing Burns cover more than one body part Burns result from chemicals, explosions or electricity All third degree or full­thickness burns should receive medical care Burns Burns First aid for superficial (first degree) and mild partial­thickness (second degree) burns with closed blisters Cool the area by flushing it with large amounts of cool water Do not use ice or ice water because is causes the body to lose heat Use dry, sterile gauze to blot area dry Apply, dry, sterile dressing (non­adhesive or nonstick is best) to prevent infection Burns Burns Elevate affected part if possible to reduce swelling Do not apply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter or other substances unless instructed to do so by physician Do not break or open any blisters as this creates an open wound prone to infection If necessary, obtain medical help Burns Burns First aid full­thickness (third degree) burns Call for medical help immediately Cover burned area with thick, sterile dressings Elevate the hands or feet if they are burned Do not allow victim to walk if feet or legs are burned Do not attempt to remove particles of clothing from burn Burns Burns Watch closely for respiratory distress or signs of shock Provide artificial respiration and treat shock if needed Watch the victim closely until medical help arrives Burns Burns First aid for burns caused by chemicals splashing on skin Flush skin area with large amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes or until medical help arrives Gently remove any clothing, socks and shoes or jewelry containing chemicals Continue flushing with cool water Watch the victim for signs of shock until medical help can be obtained Burns Burns First aid for eyes burned by chemicals or irritating gases Flush eyes with large amounts of water for 15 to 30 minutes or until medical help arrives If only one eye is injured, tilt victim’s head in direction of injury to flush eye Start at inner corner of eye and allow water to run over surface of eye to the outside Make sure water and/or chemical does not enter the uninjured eye Watch victim for signs of shock Burns Burns Other principles of care Watch for signs of shock and treat for shock immediately Frequently noted in burn victims Caused by loss of body fluids (dehydration) in severe burns Remain calm while treating burn victim Reassure the victim while providing care Obtain medical help as quickly as possible if needed ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course CNA 1 taught by Professor Teresabriggs during the Spring '12 term at NorthWest Arkansas Community College.

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