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15-10 Specific Injuries - Specific Injuries Specific...

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Unformatted text preview: Specific Injuries Specific Injuries to specific body Injuries parts require special care parts Eye Injuries Eye Eye injuries always involve danger of Eye vision loss, especially if treated incorrectly vision In most cases, it is best to avoid giving In major treatment major Obtain assistance of medical help, Obtain preferably an eye specialist, as soon as possible possible Eye Injuries Eye Foreign objects in the eye Objects such as dust or dirt cause Objects irritation, can scratch the eye or become embedded in the eye embedded Signs and symptoms Redness Burning sensation and/or pain Watering or tearing of the eyes Presence of visible objects in the eye Eye Injuries Eye If object is floating freely in the eye: Keep victim from rubbing eye Wash your hands thoroughly Gently draw upper lid down over lower lid Stimulates formation of tears Lids may create wiping action to remove particle Can also grasp eyelashes between thumb and Can forefinger forefinger Gently raise upper eyelid Tell victim to look down and tilt head to injured side Gently flush eye with water to remove particle Can also use corner of sterile gauze to gently remove Can particle particle Eye Injuries Eye If object is embedded or does not If respond to previous methods of removal: respond Make no attempt to remove particle Apply a dry, sterile dressing Obtain medical help for the victim Eye Injuries Eye Blows to the eye Examples: blows from a fist, accident or explosion May cause contusions or “black eyes” Results in internal bleeding and torn tissues in eye Can lead to loss of vision First aid care Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield At times, it is best to cover both eyes to prevent movement of At the injured eye the Keep victim lying flat Obtain medical help (eye specialist if possible) Eye Injuries Eye Penetrating injuries that cut eye tissue Extremely dangerous because can result in Extremely loss of eye fluid loss If object is protruding from eyes: Make no attempt to remove it Support it by loosely applying dressings First aid care Apply dressings to both eyes to prevent movement Apply of injured eye of Keep victim lying flat on back to prevent fluids from Keep draining out of the eye draining Obtain medical help immediately (eye specialist) Ear Injuries Ear Injuries of the ear Can result in rupture of perforation of eardrum Torn or detached tissue of the ear Apply sterile dressings with light pressure to control Apply bleeding bleeding Save any torn tissue Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or sterile Keep normal saline normal Send tissue to medical facility with victim Keep victim lying flat but raise head unless other Keep conditions prohibit raising head conditions Ear Injuries Ear Ruptured or perforated eardrum Place sterile gauze loosely in outer canal Do not allow victim to hit side or head in an Do attempt to restore hearing attempt Do not put any liquids into the ear Obtain medical help immediately Ear Injuries Ear Clear fluid or blood-tinged fluid draining from Clear ear ear Can be a sign of a skull or brain injury Allow fluid to flow from the ear Wear glove or protective barrier to avoid skin Wear contact with draining fluid contact Keep victim lying down If possible turn victim on injured side Elevate head and shoulders slightly to allow fluid to drain Obtain medical help immediately Report presence and description of fluid to EMS Brain Injuries Brain Wounds and blows to the head and skull can Wounds cause brain injury cause Obtain medical help as quickly as possible Signs and symptoms Clear or blood-tinged cerebrospinal fluid draining Clear from the nose or ears from Loss of consciousness and/or headache Visual disturbances and pupils unequal in size Paralysis of muscles and/or convulsions Disturbances in speech Nausea and vomiting Brain Injuries Brain First aid care Keep victim lying flat and raise head slightly Keep if no evidence of neck or spinal injury if Treat for shock if necessary Watch closely for signs of respiratory Watch distress and provide artificial respiration if needed needed Make no attempt to stop flow of Make cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal Position loose dressings to absorb flow Brain Injuries Brain Do not give the victim any liquids Victim may complain of excessive thirst Can moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth Can with a cool moist cloth with Note if, when and how long victim is Note unconscious and report to EMS unconscious Nosebleed or Epistaxis Nosebleed Usually nosebleeds are more frightening than Usually serious serious Can be caused by change in altitudes, Can strenuous activity, high blood pressure and rupture of small vessels after a cold rupture First aid care Keep victim quiet and remain calm Place victim in sitting position with head leaning Place slightly forward slightly Apply pressure for bleeding control Press bleeding nostril toward midline If both nostrils bleeding, press both nostrils toward midline Nosebleed or Epistaxis Nosebleed If bleeding does not stop with pressure, insert small If piece of gauze into nostril piece Apply pressure on outer surface Avoid cotton as fibers will shed and stick Leave portion of gauze extending out of nose so packing Leave can be removed later can Apply cold compresses to nose Obtain medical assistance if bleeding does not stop Obtain of if fracture of nose is suspected of Nosebleeds can be indication of underlying condition, such Nosebleeds as high blood pressure, that requires medical care and treatment treatment Injuries to the Chest Injuries Usually medical emergencies because heart, Usually lungs and major blood vessels may be involved involved In all cases, obtain medical help immediately In Sucking chest wound Sucking Deep open wound of chest that allows air to flow Deep directly in and out with breathing directly Vacuum usually present in pleura is destroyed so Vacuum lung on injured side collapses lung Immediate medical help must be obtained Injuries to the Chest Injuries Airtight dressing must be placed over wound to Airtight prevent air flow in and out of wound prevent Use aluminum foil, plastic wrap or other nonporous Use material material Use tape or a bandage to hold nonporous material in place Maintain an open airway and provide artificial Maintain respiration as needed respiration Position victim on injured side and elevate head and Position chest slightly chest Allows uninjured lung to expand more freely Prevents pressure on uninjured lung from blood and Prevents damaged tissue damaged Injuries to the Chest Injuries Penetrating injuries of the chest Can result in sucking chest wounds or Can damage to heart and blood vessels damage If object is protruding from chest (ex. Knife) Do not attempt to remove it Immobilize object by placing dressings around it Immobilize and taping the dressings in position and Place victim in comfortable position Maintain respirations Obtain medical help immediately Injuries to the Chest Injuries Crushing injuries of the chest Can be caused in vehicular accidents or when Can heavy objects strike the chest heavy Fractured ribs and damage to heart and/or lungs Fractured can occur can Place victim in comfortable position Elevate head and/or shoulders to aid breathing if Elevate possible possible If an injury to the neck of spine is suspected, avoid If moving the victim moving Obtain medical help immediately Abdominal Injuries Abdominal Can cause damage to internal organs Can and bleeding in major blood vessels and Intestines and other abdominal organs Intestines may protrude from the open wound may Medical help must be obtained Medical immediately immediately Bleeding, shock and damage to organs Bleeding, can lead to death in a short period of time time Abdominal Injuries Abdominal Signs and symptoms Severe abdominal pain and tenderness Visibility of protruding organs or open Visibility wounds wounds Nausea and vomiting (especially blood) Rigidity of abdominal muscles Symptoms of shock Abdominal Injuries Abdominal First aid care Position victim flat on back Place pillow or rolled blanket under knees to help Place relax abdominal muscles relax Elevate head and shoulders to aid in breathing Remove clothing from around the wound or Remove protruding organs protruding Cover any organs with large, sterile dressing Cover moistened with sterile water or normal saline moistened Abdominal Injuries Abdominal Make no attempt to replace protruding Make organs organs Avoid giving victim any fluids or food Victim may complain of excessive thirst Moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with a Moisten cool, wet cloth cool, Obtain medical help immediately Injuries to Genital Organs Injuries Can result from falls, blows, explosions Can or caught zippers or Medical help is required because can Medical cause severe pain, bleeding and shock cause First aid care Control severe bleeding Apply direct pressure with a sterile dressing Wear gloves or protective barrier to avoid skin Wear contact with blood contact Injuries to Genital Organs Injuries Treat victim for shock if signs are noted Do not remove any penetrating or inserted Do objects objects Save any torn tissue Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or Keep sterile normal saline sterile Send tissue to medical facility with victim Apply ice pack or cold application to Apply decrease bleeding and relieve pain decrease Obtain medical help Other Principles of Care for Specific Injuries Specific Other principles of care for specific injuries Be alert to signs of shock in all victims and Be treat for shock immediately treat Reassure victim constantly Encourage victim to relax as much as Encourage possible possible Direct first aid care at providing as much Direct relief from pain as possible relief ...
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