15-11 Sudden Illness - Sudden Illness Sudden Sudden Illness...

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Unformatted text preview: Sudden Illness Sudden Sudden Illness Sudden Sudden Illness can occur in any individual At times difficult to determine exact illness being experienced by the victim However, by knowing signs and symptoms of major disorders you may be able to provide appropriate first aid Obtain information from victim and look for identifying factors such as medical alert bracelets or necklaces or medical information cards Heart Attack Heart Heart Attack Also called coronary thrombosis, coronary occlusion or myocardial infarction (MI) May occur when one of the coronary arteries supplying blood to heart is blocked If attack is severe, victim may die If heart stops beating, CPR must be started Heart Attack Heart Signs and symptoms vary depending on amount of heart damage – Severe painful pressure under sternum with pain radiating to shoulders, arms, neck and jaw – Intense shortness of breath – Skin, especially by lips and nailbeds, becomes pale or cyanotic (bluish) in color – Victim weak but anxious and apprehensive – Nausea and/or vomiting – Diaphoresis or excessive perspiration – Loss of consciousness may occur Heart Attack Heart First aid care – Encourage victim to relax and reassure victim constantly – Position in a comfortable position to relieve pain and assist breathing – Watch for signs of shock and treat as needed – Avoid unnecessary stress and excessive movement – Obtain medical help ASAP Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Cerebrovascular Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Also called stroke, apoplexy or cerebral thrombosis Causes – Formation of a clot in cerebral artery to brain – Hemorrhage from a blood vessel in the brain Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Cerebrovascular Signs and symptoms vary depending on part of brain affected – Numbness or paralysis (usually hemiplegia – paralysis on one side of body) – Pupils of eyes are unequal in size – Mental confusion and slurred speech – Nausea and vomiting – Difficulty in breathing and swallowing – Loss of consciousness Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Cerebrovascular First aid care – Maintain respirations – Position victim flat or on side to allow secretions to drain from the mouth – Avoid any fluids or food by mouth – Reassure victim – Avoid unnecessary stress or movement – Obtain medical assistance ASAP Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Cerebrovascular Always remember that even though victims may be unable to speak or appear to be unconscious, they may be able to hear and understand what is happening Fainting Fainting Fainting Occurs when there is a temporary reduction in supply of blood to the brain – May result in partial or complete loss of consciousness – Victim usually regains consciousness after being placed in a supine (laying flat) position Fainting Fainting Early signs include dizziness, extreme pallor, diaphoresis, coldness of skin, nausea and numbness or tingling of hands and feet If early symptoms are noted, help victim lie down or sit in chair head with head down at level of knees Fainting Fainting If victim loses consciousness, try to prevent injury Keep victim in supine position Loosen any tight clothing Maintain an open airway Gently bathe victim’s face with cool water Check for any injuries caused by the fall Keep victim flat until color improves and victim has recovered – After recovery, allow victim to get up gradually – – – – – – Fainting Fainting Obtain medical help in the following cases: – Recovery is not prompt – Other injuries occur or aresuspected – Fainting occurs again after recovery Fainting can be a sign of a serious illness or condition Convulsion Convulsion Convulsion Violent involuntary contraction of muscles Causes – High body temperatures – Head injuries – Brain disease – Brain disorders such as epilepsy Convulsion Convulsion Progression of a convulsion – Rigidity of body muscles followed by jerking movements – Person may stop breathing, bite tongue, lose bladder and bowel control and injury body parts – Face and lips may develop bluish or cyanotic color – Victim loses consciousness – After regaining consciousness, victim may be confused and disoriented and may complain of a headache Convulsion Convulsion First aid care is directed at preventing self­injury – – – – Remove dangerous objects from area Provide a pillow or cushion under the head Provide artificial respiration as necessary Do not try to place anything between the victim’s teeth Can cause severe injury to your fingers Can damage victim’s teeth or gums Convulsion Convulsion – Do not use force to restrain or stop muscle movement as this causes contractions to become more severe – Do not pour any liquids in victim’s mouth or face – When convulsion is over, watch victim closely and allow victim to rest or sleep Convulsion Convulsion – Obtain medical help if: The seizure lasts more than a few minutes The victim has repeated seizures Other severe injuries are apparent The victim does not have a history of seizures The victim does not regain consciousness Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Diabetes mellitus Metabolic disorder caused by a lack of or insufficient production of insulin – Insulin helps body break down glucose, a form of sugar – Lack of insulin leads to a build up of glucose in blood – Give insulin by injection to control level of glucose in blood Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Individuals with diabetes are in danger of developing two conditions that require first aid – Diabetic coma – Insulin shock Diabetic coma – Caused by increase in level of glucose in blood – May be due to excess intake of sugar, failure to take insulin or insufficient production of insulin Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes – Signs and symptoms Confusion, weakness or dizziness Nausea and/or vomiting Rapid, deep respiration Dry and flushed skin Sweet or fruity odor to breath Eventually loses consciousness and can die – First aid care Obtain medical help ASAP Transport to medical facility quickly Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Insulin shock – Occurs when there is an excess amount of insulin and a low level of glucose in bloodstream – Causes Failure to eat recommended amount Vomiting after taking insulin Taking excessive amounts of insulin Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes – Signs and symptoms Muscle weakness Mental confusion, restlessness or anxiety Diaphoresis and pale, moist skin Hunger pangs Palpitation or rapid, irregular heartbeat May lapse into coma and develop convulsions – Onset of insulin shock is sudden and victim’s condition can deteriorate quickly Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes – First aid care – Immediate care is needed If victim conscious, give a drink containing sugar, such as orange juice Sugar cube, teaspoon of sugar or hard candy can be placed in victim’s mouth Avoid giving hard candy if victim is confused because victim could choke Obtain medical help immediately if victim loses consciousness or convulsions start Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Differentiate between diabetic coma and insulin shock – Observe symptoms carefully – Obtain information from victim “Have you eaten today?” and “Have you taken your insulin today?” If victim has taken insulin but has not eaten, insulin shock is developing If victim has eaten but has not taken insulin, diabetic coma is developing Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes – If unable to differentiate when victim is unconscious or no definite symptoms are present: Treat as insulin shock (lesser of two evils) Provide sugar by putting granulated sugar under tongue If victim is in diabetic coma, blood sugar level can be lowered at medical facility If victim is in insulin shock, brain damage could occur if not treated immediately Call for medical assistance immediately Sudden Illness Sudden Other principles of care – Constantly reassure the victim – Make every attempt to encourage victim to relax and avoid further stress – Pain, anxiety and fear during sudden illness can contribute to shock – Be alert to signs of shock and provide treatment accordingly ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course CNA 1 taught by Professor Teresabriggs during the Spring '12 term at NorthWest Arkansas Community College.

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