PHY106Putting it all together

PHY106Putting it all together - Announcements 1 Recap of...

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Announcements 1. Recap of important material today & Monday. 2. Review sheet will be handed out on Monday (4/22) 3. Video on Wednesday (4/24), with questions to answer. 4. Friday (4/26) is a pure Q&A session. 5. HW solutions due last Wednesday (4/17) will be posted today. 6. Next Wednesday’s HW will be posted that evening. 7. HW’s handed in late will be greatly reduced in credit, or not accepted.
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Putting it all together
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What IS Matter ? Matter is all the “stuff” around you ! Here’s the picture we’ve uncovered Hadrons Matter Matter Leptons Baryons Baryons Mesons Mesons Charged Charged Neutrinos Neutrinos Forces Weak Weak EM EM Strong Strong Gravity Gravity Quarks Anti-Quarks
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The Quarks Quark Charge Mass [MeV/ c 2 ] d -1/3 ~10 s -1/3 ~200 b -1/3 ~4500 Each quark has a corresponding antiquark. Antiquarks have opposite charge to their quark. Huge variation in the masses, from 5 [MeV/ c 2 ] to 175,000 [MeV/ c 2 ]. Quark Charge Mass [MeV/ c 2 ] u +2/3 ~5 c +2/3 ~1500 t +2/3 ~175,000 Family 1 2 3
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The Leptons Charged Charge Mass [MeV/ c 2 ] e - -1 ~0.51 μ - -1 ~105 τ - -1 ~1780 Neutral Charge Mass [MeV/ c 2 ] ν e 0 ~ 0 ν μ 0 ~ 0 ν τ 0 ~ 0 Family 1 2 3 Each lepton has a corresponding anti-lepton. Antileptons have opposite charge to their lepton. Huge variation in the masses, from 0.5 [MeV/ c 2 ] to 1,780 [MeV/ c 2 ].
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Forces Electromagnetic: the photon ( γ ) Strong: the gluon (g) Weak: the W + , W - & Z 0 Forces are the due to the exchange of force carriers . For each fundamental force, there is a force carrier (or set of them). The force carriers only “talk-to” or “couple to” particles which carry the proper charge. Electric Charge (+, -) Color Charge (r,g,b) Weak Charge
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Particles & Forces quarks Charged leptons (e, μ,τ ) Neutral leptons ( ν ) Color Charge ? EM Charge ? Weak Charge ? Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Quarks can participate in Strong, EM & Weak Interactions ! All quarks & all leptons carry weak charge
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In other words… Since quarks have color charge, EM charge & weak charge , they can engage in all 3 types of interactions ! Charged leptons (e, μ , τ ) carry EM and weak charge , but no strong charge . Therefore, they can participate in the EM & weak interaction, but they cannot participate in the strong interaction. Neutrinos only carry weak charge , and therefore they only participate in the weak interaction they can pass through the earth like it wasn’t even there !
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Why should we believe that forces are the result of force carriers? The Standard Model (SM) which I have describe to you is just that, it’s a model, or better yet, a theory. All forces are described by exchange of force carriers, period ! It’s is an extremely successful theory. It explains all subatomic phenomenon to extraordinary precision! One example is in a quantity referred to as the electron’s “g-factor” “g” from experiment: 2.0023193043 768 “g” from theory (SM): 2.0023193043 070 They agree to better than 1 part in 10 billion ! Coincidence ?
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Particle or Wave?
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PHY106Putting it all together - Announcements 1 Recap of...

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