Central nervous system

Central nervous system - Central Nervous System Nervous...

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Central Nervous System • Nervous System Organization • Protective Elements • Function of the CNS by Region • Higher Order Processing – The brain and consciousness – Associative functions of the brain
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Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord 4 regions: cervical thoracic lumbar sacral
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Nervous System Organization Divisions of Nervous System Central Nervous System = Brain + Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Afferent (Sensory) Efferent (Motor) Somatic (voluntary) Autonomic (involuntary) Sympa- thetic Parasym- pathetic Enteric
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CNS PNS CNS = brain + spinal cord; all parts of interneurons are in the CNS. PNS = afferent neurons (their activity “affects” what will happen next) into the CNS + efferent neurons (“effecting” change: movement, secretion, etc.) projecting out of the CNS.
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CNS vs. PNS • Terminology – collections of neurons in the CNS are nuclei – collections of neurons in the PNS are ganglia – groups of axons in the CNS are tracts – groups of axons in the PNS are nerves • Some functional differences – Schwann cells produce myelin that ensheath PNS neurons (1:1) – Oligodendrocytes produce myelin that ensheath CNS neurons (1:several) – PNS neurons undergo Wallerian degeneration following injury – PNS neurons regenerate more readily than CNS neurons
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Protective Elements of the CNS • Cranium • Meninges • Cerebrospinal Fluid • Blood Brain Barrier
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Protective Elements of the CNS Meninges : three layers of membrane between bones and tissues dura mater arachnoid membrane pia mater
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Protective Elements of the CNS Fig. 9-5 Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space and fills the ventricles Fluid buoyancy reduces the weight of the brain (30x)
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Blood-Brain Barrier : protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood highly selective permeability of brain capillaries excludes water soluble molecules, but lipid-soluble molecules can diffuse through vomiting center in the medulla oblongata and the posterior pituitary (releases hormones) lack the blood-brain barrier Protective Elements of the CNS
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Spinal Cord
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Spinal Cord Gray matter
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Central Nervous System: Brain
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Diencephalon Brain Stem and Cerebellum The hypothalamus is a major endocrine gland / integrating center.
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Central nervous system - Central Nervous System Nervous...

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