BMED 3100: Systems Physiology 1I. Intro to Physiology (Greek-knowledge of nature): the study of the specific characteristics and functionsof a living organism and its parts •Must consider integration of systems to study physiology •Comparative physiology: study of function across species Levels of biological organization.The body is organized as a functional hierarchy from the cell to tissues to organs to body systems to the individual. Living systems consist of a hierarchy of complexity, starting with the basic unit of all life, the cell. Many cells of similar structure and function form a tissue. Different tissues form an organand different organs form an organsystem. Each organ system has one or more functions (e.g., our integumentary system reduces water loss and protects us from infection). The organ systems work together to form an organism. The 10 Organ SystemsOrgan System Major Cell/Tissue Major Function Note Circulatory (heart/vascular) endothelial smooth muscle cardiac muscle pump blood carry oxygen remove waste Digestive (stomach/GI tract) epithelial, smooth muscle mechanical/ enzymatic digestion Exchange material between the internal and external environments Endocrine epithelial, thyroid gland, adrenal gland synthesis and release of regulatory molecules Major regulatory and control system Immune thymus, spleen, lymph nodes defense against foreign invaders Integumentary epithelial: skin protection from external environment Musculoskeletal connective, muscle movement, support Sometimes divided into 2 systems Nervous nervous receive information, carry signals store/process information Major regulatory and control system Reproductive ovaries and uterus, testes Biological replacement Exchange material between the internal and external environments Respiratory epithelial, smooth muscle take in oxygen expel CO2 Exchange material between the internal and external environments Urinary epithelial regulate water/electrolyte balance arterial pressure acid/base balance micturition filtration/storage metabolism Exchange material between the internal and external environments cell tissue organ organ system organism
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