Intro and Tissues - BMED 3100: Systems Physiology I. Intro...

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BMED 3100: Systems Physiology 1 I. Intro to Physiology (Greek-knowledge of nature): the study of the specific characteristics and functions of a living organism and its parts Must consider integration of systems to study physiology Comparative physiology: study of function across species Levels of biological organization. The body is organized as a functional hierarchy from the cell to tissues to organs to body systems to the individual. Living systems consist of a hierarchy of complexity, starting with the basic unit of all life, the cell . Many cells of similar structure and function form a tissue . Different tissues form an organ and different organs form an organ system . Each organ system has one or more functions (e.g., our integumentary system reduces water loss and protects us from infection). The organ systems work together to form an organism. The 10 Organ Systems Organ System Major Cell/Tissue Major Function Note Circulatory (heart/vascular) endothelial smooth muscle cardiac muscle pump blood carry oxygen remove waste Digestive (stomach/GI tract) epithelial, smooth muscle mechanical/ enzymatic digestion Exchange material between the internal and external environments Endocrine epithelial, thyroid gland, adrenal gland synthesis and release of regulatory molecules Major regulatory and control system Immune thymus, spleen, lymph nodes defense against foreign invaders Integumentary epithelial: skin protection from external environment Musculoskeletal connective, muscle movement, support Sometimes divided into 2 systems Nervous nervous receive information, carry signals store/process information Major regulatory and control system Reproductive ovaries and uterus, testes Biological replacement Exchange material between the internal and external environments Respiratory epithelial, smooth muscle take in oxygen expel CO2 Exchange material between the internal and external environments Urinary epithelial regulate water/electrolyte balance arterial pressure acid/base balance micturition filtration/storage metabolism Exchange material between the internal and external environments cell tissue organ organ system organism
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BMED 3100: Systems Physiology 2 Themes in physiology: o Homeostasis o Cell-cell communication and coordination o Movement across membranes o Compartmentalization of the body and cell o Energy flow and balance o Principles of mass balance and mass flow II. Introduction to Medical Terminology Origins of Medical Language Terms built from Greek and Latin word parts*, eponyms, acronyms, modern language Most medical terms have the following word parts: 1. word root (WR)– the core of the word 2. suffix (S) – attached at the end of a word root to modify its meaning 3. prefix (P)– attached at the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning 4. combining vowels (CV) – usually an “o” used to ease pronunciation Rules for using combining vowels: 1) When connecting a word root and a suffix, a combining vowel is used if the suffix does not
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course BMED 3110 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Intro and Tissues - BMED 3100: Systems Physiology I. Intro...

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