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Unformatted text preview: BMED 3100: Systems Physiology 1 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Health : state of well-being Injury: disturbance or derangement of a cell/organs ability to maintain normal or adaptive homeostasis; viable cells exist in a state of profound disequilibrium with their external environment Reversible recovery OR Reversible adaptation OR Irreversible cell death Pathophysiology (Greek pathos-suffering of disease): the study of disorder or breakdown of the human bodys function Pathology = study of disease Pathologist = specializes in diagnosis / classification of disease Pathogenesis = origin and development of disease Pathogen = disease causing micro-organism (e.g., virus, bacteria) Basic mechanism of disease = disturbance(s) in homeostatic balance + body's responses If disturbances are severe / prolonged can death Health &amp; disease = opposite extremes of a continuum, midpoint being where person is neither well nor ill. Most people live between health and midpoint. Epidemiology = study of disease occurrence, distribution &amp; transmission in population Disease without symptoms = asymptomatic (often in early stages) Syndrome = group of signs &amp; symptoms which occur together in characteristic pattern Remission = temporary recovery [permanent remission = cure] Clinical manifestations = the functional consequences of disease Acute disease = signs &amp; symptoms appear rapidly but are of short duration Chronic disease = disease which is slow in onset but long lasting (even for life) Communicable disease = can be transmitted from one person to next Endemic disease = recurring in a local region Epidemic disease = simultaneous spread to many individuals Pandemic disease = spreads over large geographic area (world) Disease can be: organic - usually associated with lesions (localized abnormal in tissue formation) - detected by gross/histologic examination functional - no structural (morphological) s evident despite dysfunction BMED 3100: Systems Physiology 2 Etiology = cause of disease (can be external or internal ) 1. Genetic inherited disease or susceptibility to disease 2. Environmental often combines with genetic predisposition a. Physical, chemical agents b. Nutritional deficiencies c. Infectious pathogen exposure 3. Congenic prenatal exposure to viral or toxic agent 4. Metabolic abnormal chemistry 5. Immunologic abnormal or insufficient response 6. Iatrogenic caused by a healthcare professional 7. Psychogenic emotional influence 8. Idiopathic undetermined cause; spontaneous origin Diagnosis : distinguishing one disease from another Diagnosis is based on: SIGNS &amp; SYMPTOMS objective abnormalities subjective manifestations seen/measured by another felt by patient (e.g., blood tests, temperature) (e.g., weakness, pain) 1. clinical history - history of illness - past medical history (general health) - family history (disease runs in family) - social history (alcohol/cigarettes etc.) 2. physical exam list of possible diseases...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course BMED 3110 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.
- Spring '08