68111033-1-2-waveparticle - Wave-Particle Duality Particle...

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Wave-Particle Duality Particle Behavior of Wave In the previous section we have discussed interaction between atomic oscillators and electromagnetic wave. Planck’s radical assumption was that the electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed as quanta , with energy ± ² . In this lecture we will discuss particle properties of wave and wave properties of particles. We also discuss formation of particle from wave and formation of wave from particle. After Planck's assumption, several experiments was proposed to investigate particle properties of wave. These are namely: Photoelectric effect Compton scattering Raman scattering After particle behavior of wave accepted, the question became whether this was true only for light or whether material objects also exhibited wave-like behavior. This is proposed and formulated by de Broglie. This hypothesis have been experimentally confirmed. Pair-Production shows production of particle from a wave. Photo electric effect After studying the photoelectric effect, Einstein concluded that electromagnetic radiation could be shown to behave as a beam of particles, with energy ± ² . Let us briefly summarize the photoelectric effect experiment: When a light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected from the surface of the metal. The ejected electrons are termed photoelectrons. This interaction can be explained as follows; Energy of incident light is absorbed by electrons within the metal. According to the classical Maxwell wave theory of light, the more intense the incident light the greater the energy with which the electrons should be ejected from the metal. Classically, the average energy carried by an ejected (photoelectric) electron should increase with the intensity of the incident light. Experiment shows this is wrong!
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The energies of the emitted electrons to be independent of the intensity of the incident radiation. Einstein (1905) successfully resolved this paradox. He proposed that the incident light consisted of individual quanta, called photons, that interacted with the electrons in the metal like discrete particles, rather than as continuous waves. For a given frequency, or 'color,' of the incident radiation, each photon carried the energy ± ² ±³´ . In this model, Increasing the intensity of the light corresponded, to increasing the number of incident photons per unit time (flux), while the energy of each photon remained the same (as long as the frequency of the radiation was held constant). In Einstein's model, increasing the frequency, rather than the intensity, of the incident radiation would increase the average energy of the emitted electrons. Both of these predictions were confirmed experimentally.
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68111033-1-2-waveparticle - Wave-Particle Duality Particle...

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