Lecture notes 321 part 1 2011

Lecture notes 321 part 1 2011 - ESR 321 Lecture Notes...

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ESR 321 Lecture Notes Portland State University Dr. Alan Yeakley 1 Outline – Part 1 of ESR 321 1. Ecosphere fundamentals 2. Levels of biological organization 3. Ecosystem properties 4. Structural organization of ecosystems a. Lifeforms b. Spatial patterns c. The ecological niche d. Species diversity e. Measures of diversity 5. Testing ecological differences a. t test b. χ 2 test 6. Limiting factors 7. Carbon cycling a. Ecosystem carbon budgets b. Carbon residence times c. Environmental controls on NPP 8. Bibliography
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ESR 321 Lecture Notes Portland State University Dr. Alan Yeakley 2 1. Ecosphere fundamentals Biosphere = living component on Earth Ecosphere = biosphere plus the transition zone which supports it and with which it interacts (i.e. upper part of lithosphere, most of atmosphere and hydrosphere) Elemental composition of life - proportion of C is the key difference - properties of carbon 1. high valency (4) 2. C-C bond has great strength 3. formation of multiple bonds by C - organic matter is composed of 4 classes: 1. fats 2. carbohydrates 3. proteins 4. nucleic acids
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ESR 321 Lecture Notes Portland State University Dr. Alan Yeakley 3 - organic matter includes essential elements: C, H, O, N, P, S key in biogeochemistry Cell function - cell is the basic unit of living matter - transfer of matter and energy is fundamental to understanding the ecosphere - three types of work take place in the cell 1. chemical work performed for cell maintenance and growth (i.e., biosynthesis) 2. transport of materials within cell or across membrane 3. mechanical work - all work requires energy input ADP – ATP transfer system - oxidation of ADP to ATP “charges” or stores energy with the ATP molecule, a process termed cell respiration - ATP then carries out work in the cell - Input: O 2 , CH 2 O Output: H 2 O, CO 2
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ESR 321 Lecture Notes Portland State University Dr. Alan Yeakley 4 Thermodynamic viewpoint - cells have low entropy - cell division reduces entropy further - with evolution, biosphere as a whole has progressively reduced internal entropy - however, 2 nd law of thermodynamics says that entropy should always increase question: is this a paradox? - Observe 1. cells are able to build complex structures using an efficient energy transfer process 2. cells take low entropy fuel molecules (sugars) from their environment and return high entropy molecules (CO 2 , H 2 O) - Thus, cells, or more generally, living organisms increase entropy of the environment , in accordance with the 2 nd law of thermodynamics - Note also that cells are - open systems - in need of continuous energy input
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ESR 321 Lecture Notes Portland State University Dr. Alan Yeakley 5 Properties of organisms - organisms are the primary elements of ecosystems - all organisms have: 1. genotype = a unique set of genetic attributes based on DNA structure in the nuclei of their cells; controls development and activity 2. phenotype = morphological, physiological and behavioral attributes; expression of the genotype - species = a group of organisms that either interbreed to produce offspring or reproduce asexually -
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2012 for the course ESM 321 taught by Professor Environmentalsystem during the Winter '10 term at Portland State.

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Lecture notes 321 part 1 2011 - ESR 321 Lecture Notes...

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