Chapter 5 How is a Unit of Argument Created Student Version

Chapter 5 How is a Unit of Argument Created Student Version...

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Unformatted text preview: How is a Unit of Argument Created?  Stephen Toulmin (born in 1922) originally a BriBsh logician is now a professor at USC. He became frustrated with the inability of formal logic to explain simple and everyday arguments.  Claim _______________________  Grounds _____________________  Warrant _____________________  Qualifier _____________________ _______ ________ ________  Claim: Your own opinion, the conclusion you form from your informaBon on the topic. Four types of claims:   _______________   _______________   _______________   _______________  Grounds: The proof or evidence an arguer provides. Must always __________ the claim.  Grounds can be in the form of staBsBcs, quotaBons, reports, findings, physical evidence etc.  Grounds answer the quesBons:   ________________________   ________________________  When criBcally analyzing grounds, you need to look for:   ___________________   Accuracy   ___________________   Quality   Consistency   ___________________   The grounds of an argument oTen follow the words, “________,” “________,” and “______________.” I expect to do well on the test ________ I studied all night for it!  Warrant: indicates how, given the available grounds (proof/evidence), it is reasonable for the listener or reader to make the __________________from them to the claim. Provides specific informaBon about how the arguer reasons.  EssenBally, it __________ the claim to the grounds.  Warrants are typically ____________ (________) and requires the listener to pay aZenBon and connect the dots.  So what does this mean? ArgumentaBon is just as much about ___________________as it is about construcBng arguments!  The warrant provides the “linking” funcBon by creaBng a mental ____________ between the _______________ and the _______________. Jeren is running a temperature, I’ll bet he has an infec<on! Claim: He has an infecBon Grounds: He has a temperature. Warrant: People with temperatures usually mean something is wrong with their health.  Warrants can be based on:  _____________________  _____________________  _____________________  _____________________ _______ _________ _________  Backing: offers explicit (yet more) informaBon to establish the reliability of the warrant used in arguing the claim. AddiBonal ammuniBon/ support.  Qualifiers: show the __________________of the claim.  Not all arguments must be qualified.  Qualified: In some cases, recycling is more dangerous than helpful.  Unqualified: Recycling is more dangerous than helpful.  Rebu=als: are added to claim statements that need to be ______________ to indicate the circumstances under which they may or may not be valid.  They help eliminate objecBons to the claim made by opponents. Recycling is more dangerous than helpful, unless the like products are recycled.  ________________of an argument  Real life arguments aren’t always neat or clear. Not useful in the heat of an argument.  Since warrants are unstated, they can become _________________________. Gay couples should not be allowed to be married. The Bible says Adam and Eve not Adam and Steve.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant: Vola<lity in the stock market will probably persist for the foreseeable future. In a global economy, changing circumstances anywhere in the world can create uncertainty.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant:  Qualifier: I am now convinced that we are perilously close to the end of civiliza<on. William Shatner sold his kidney stone on Ebay for $25,000.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant:  Note: this wouldn’t be a serious argument Ronald Reagan’s likeness should be chiseled onto Mt. Rushmore, alongside Washington, Jefferson Lincoln and Roosevelt. Polls show Americans rank him with John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln as one of the greatest presidents of all <me.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant: How do you know WWE wrestling is fake? I’ll tell you how. You never see the results printed in the Sports sec<on of the newspaper.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant: Conserva<ves may not like it, but ci<zens have a Cons<tu<onal right to burn the American flag. Flag burning is a symbolic, poli<cal act and it is precisely such unpopular, offensive symbolic acts that the 1st amendment was designed to protect.  Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant: Herbal remedies may do more harm than good in some cases. People with serious health problems may delay or forego needed medical care because they are relying on herbal remedies Claim:  Grounds:  Warrant:  Qualifier: ...
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