5 - Membrane Biogenesis II The Nucleus

5 - Membrane Biogenesis II The Nucleus - Lecture 5 Membrane...

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Lecture 5 Membrane compartments II: the nucleus The Nucleus: compartment where molecular and cell biology meet
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A. Mitochondria B. Nucleus C. Golgi D. ER E. Cytosol What compartments are topologically equivalent to the exterior of the cell?
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A. mRNA associated with ribosomes before they start to be translated B. Emerging protein during translation C. Completely folded protein after translation What targets does SRP recognize for transport into ER ?
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Tight junctions are spatially coordinated and functionally interdependent with adherent junctions to form junctional complex that also contain Par scaffold proteins Cell junctions govern polarity in epithelia Par ( partitioning defective ): conserved proteins involved in cell polarization Scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains Polarization of epithelial cells in culture Tight junctions Par3/6, aPKC Rac/Cdc42 (small GTPases) Actin filaments Polarized cytoskeleton organization Formation of basal lamina Figure 19-29, 19-31 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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Nucleus I. Structure of the nucleus and high-order DNA packaging II. Transport of macromolecules to and from the nucleus
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Figure 12-8 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Gross morphology of the nucleus Two nuclear membranes: there is perinulcear space that is connected to ER. The compositions of inner and outer membranes are different: inner membranes interacts with nuclear lamina and chromatin inside the nucleus. Outer membrane is continuous with ER. Nuclear pore complex spans both membranes and allows free diffusion of small molecules and restrict transport of larger macromolecules
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Nuclear lamina gives shape and stability to nuclear envelope Nuclear lamina is the meshwork of filament proteins called nuclear lamins. Lamins attach to both membrane proteins of inner nuclear membrane and chromatin inside the nucleus Do not confuse nuclear lamina with basal lamina! Figure 12-19 Molecular Biology of the Cell Laminin from basal lamina
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Packaging of DNA in the nucleus DNA should be packed otherwise it will not fit Figure 4-72 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) At the same time DNA should be accessible for transcription: ~ 15,000 transcribed in each cell Figure 4-16 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) 1 bp = 1 mm scale: genome ~ 2000 miles Real scale: genome ~ 3 meters Nucleus: 10 -6 m
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Packaging of 30nm DNA fiber into chromatin loops Figure 4-55 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Chromatin loops can be seen in lumpbrush chromosomes of amphibian oocytes
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Figure 4-56 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) How DNA looping can be studied in normal cells? Chromosome conformation capture (3C) method
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5 - Membrane Biogenesis II The Nucleus - Lecture 5 Membrane...

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