15 - Apoptosis

15 - Apoptosis - Apoptosis Where O death is thy sting...

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Apoptosis Programmed cell death is a counter-intuitive, but essential cell fate Where, O death, is thy sting?
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Cell biology beyond single cell Size scales relevant to Cell Biology
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Apoptosis was a term introduced in 1972 to distinguish a mode of cell death with characteristic morphology and apparently regulated, endogenously driven mechanisms .
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Programmed cell death does not make sense for single cell, only for whole organism Dictyostelium Cell death
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Why programmed cell death? Necrosis is non-specific cell death due to injury. Cells swell and lyse, releasing contents. Potentially damaging to neighboring cells. Programmed cell death: apoptosis Non-programmed cell death: necrosis
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Features of apoptosis Necrotic cell Common marks of apoptosis Dying cell shrink and condense, then fragment, but not burst DNA is fragmented (cleaved by endonuclease) Change in plasma membrane lipid composition Apoptotic cell is often engulfed by surrounding cells Loss of electrical potential in mitochondria membrane
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Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Two biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis Cells undergoing apoptosis show a ladder of DNA fragments. Endonuclease cleaves DNA into nucleosomal units. Phosphatidylserine is a negatively charged phospholipid; it is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. Phosphatidylserine flips during apoptosis and signals macrophages to phagocytose the cell.
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