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TIA_thesis - A 2.5 GHz Optoelectronic Amplifier in 0.18 m...

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A 2.5 GHz Optoelectronic Amplifier in 0.18 µ m CMOS by Carlos Roberto Calvo A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering May 2003 Approved: _________________________________ Professor John A. McNeill Thesis Advisor _________________________________ Professor Stephen J. Bitar Thesis Committee _________________________________ Professor Demetrios Papageorgiou Thesis Committee
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Abstract The ever-growing need for high speed data transmission is driven by multimedia and telecommunication demands. Traditional metallic media, such as copper coaxial cable, prove to be a limiting factor for high speed communications. Fiber optic methods provide a feasible solution that lacks the limitations of metallic mediums, including low bandwidth, cross talk caused by magnetic induction, and susceptibility to static and RF interferences. The first scientists to work with fibers optics started in 1970. One of the early challenges they faced was to produce glass fiber that was pure enough to be equal in performance with copper based media. Since then, the technology has advanced tremendously in terms of performance, quality, and consistency. The advancement of fiber optic communication has met its limits, not in the purity of its fiber media used to guide the data-modulated light wave, but in the conversion back and forth between electric signals to light. A high speed optic receiver must be used to convert the incident light into electrical signals. This thesis describes the design of a 2.5 GHz Optoelectronic Amplifier, the front end of an optic receiver. The discussion includes a survey of feasible topologies and an assessment of circuit techniques to enhance performance. The amplifier was designed and realized in a TSMC 0.18 µ m CMOS process.
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Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following for making this thesis possible: Professor John McNeill for technical advice, funding, the opportunity to work in his laboratory, and his patience. Professor Stephen Bitar and Professor Demetrios Papageorgiou for serving on my thesis committee. Chengxin, Tony, Pavan, Ping, and Renato for the fond memories in the VLSI Lab and at ISSCC. Brian, Jennifer, Mara, and Matt for their help along the way. My family for their love and support.
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Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1 CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 4 2.1 P HOTO - DETECTOR ................................................................................................................................. 4 2.2 P REAMPLIFIER ..................................................................................................................................... 10 2.3 P OST A MPLIFIER .................................................................................................................................. 12 2.4 C LOCK AND D ATA R ECOVERY ............................................................................................................ 13 2.5 D EFINITION OF S PECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................................... 14 2.6 C ONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 16 CHAPTER 3: TRANSIMPEDANCE AMPLIFIER ................................................................................ 17 3.1 T RANSIMPEDANCE A MPLIFIER S YSTEM ............................................................................................... 17 3.2 I NVERTER C ONFIGURATIONS ............................................................................................................... 20 3.2.1 Current Load .............................................................................................................................. 21 3.2.2 Push-Pull .................................................................................................................................... 24 3.2.3 Cascode ....................................................................................................................................... 28 3.3 C ONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 33 CHAPTER 4: LIMITING AMPLIFIER ................................................................................................... 34 4.1 R ESISTIVE L OAD DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER ......................................................................................... 36 4.2 I NDUCTIVE L OAD D IFFERENTIAL P AIR ................................................................................................ 39 4.3 D IFFERENTIAL P AIR WITH A CTIVE I NDUCTORS ................................................................................... 42 4.4 C ONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 49 CHAPTER 5: OFFSET CORRECTION .................................................................................................. 50 5.1 L OW P ASS F ILTER AND AC C OUPLING ................................................................................................ 51 5.2 O FFSET F EEDBACK .............................................................................................................................. 53 5.3 C ONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 57 CHAPTER 6: VERIFICATION, TESTING AND RESULTS ................................................................ 58 6.1 T RANSIMPEDANCE A MPLIFIER ............................................................................................................ 58 6.2 O PTOELECTRONIC A MPLIFIER S
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