Chapter 1 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (Scientific Method)

Chapter 1 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (Scientific Method)

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Unformatted text preview: The Scientific Method 1 2 3 Key Issues in Human Development 1- Heredity and Environment Heredity-oriented theories assume an important role of underlying biological structures. They point out that specific genes may underlie development and behavior. Environmental explanations focus on the individuals experience pertaining to thinking, health, and social factors 4 Key Issues in Human Development Heredity and environment interact, but theorists still disagree over the relative contributions of each and the manner of their interaction. The position that the theorists take on this question determines the direction and nature of their research 5 Key Issues in Human Development 2- Maturation and Learning Maturation refers to biological processes. Learning refers to change over time related to practice or experience. When development is considered in terms of maturation and learning, the emphasis is on time. Example: How is the biological event of menopause affected by a womans lifestyle (experience)? 6 Key Issues in Human Development 3- Critical Versus Sensitive Periods Optimal periods during which certain types of learning occur best Readiness refers to reaching a maturational point at which a specific behavior can be learned Examples: The effects of certain diseases during pregnancy Acquiring a second language during an early age The critical time span several hours after birth during which goslings become bonded to the mother (imprinting) 7 The Scientific Method 8 What Makes Research Scientific? 1- Precision 2- Skepticism 3- Reliance on Empirical Evidence 4- The Principle of Falsifiability 5- Openness? Replication 9 Science becomes dangerous only when it imagines that it has reached its goal. (George Bernard Shaw) 10 Issues in Data Collection 1- Sampling Random Sampling Representative Sample 2- Reliability The degree of consistency with which a test or scale measures something. 3- Validity The extent to which a test or scale measures what it is supposed to measure 11 Validity 1- Internal Validity What happened to the experimental group actually caused the new behavior....
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Chapter 1 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (Scientific Method)

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