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Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Behavior (The Brain)

Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Behavior (The Brain) - Your...

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1 Your Amazing Brain Receives information – within a fraction of a second, too minuscule to measure Acts on the external universe – allows you to cry, walk, play a musical instrument Utilizes language – one of your most advanced functions Possesses emotions – creates your affective universe
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2 Your Amazing Brain Thinks –is responsible for your memory, intelligence, your thoughts Controls your autonomic functions – heart rate, breathing, homeostasis Controls your immune system – protects you from viruses
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5 Peripheral Nervous System Handles the CNS’s input and output. Contains all the portions of the NS outside of the brain and spinal cord. Contains sensory nerves and motor nerves Divided into autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system.
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6 Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Nerves (to the brain) Carry messages from special reporters in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord and then to the brain Motor Nerves (from the brain) Carry orders from CNS to muscles, glands to contract and produce chemical messengers
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7 Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS Consists of nerves connected to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles Permits voluntary action (writing your name) Autonomic NS Permits the involuntary functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal organs such as the bladder, stomach and heart
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8 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic NS Like the accelerator of your car Mobilizes the body for action Increases heart rate Elevates blood pressure Parasympathetic NS Like the brakes in your car Slows the body down to keep its rhythm Enables the body to conserve and store energy
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9 Sympathetic NS and Emotion You perceive the sensory stimulus. The adrenal gland sends two hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine. They activate the sympathetic nervous system. That produces a state of arousal or alertness that provides the body with the energy to act (the pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and breathing speeds up).
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11 Central Nervous System The Spinal Cord The Brain
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12 The Spinal Cord Protected by a column of bones Produces some behaviors of its own without the help of the brain These spinal reflexes are automatic, requesting no conscious effort Sometimes they are influenced by thought and emotion Example: touching a hot iron
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13 The Brain Areas of the Brain The Four Lobes of the Brain Lateralization
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15 The Hindbrain Medulla – breathing, heart rate Pons – sleeping, walking, dreaming Riticular Activating System – alertness, attention Cerebellum – balance, coordination for the muscles
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16 The Forebrain Thalamus Direct sensory messages to higher centers in the brain The sight of sunset is directed to a visual area The only sense that completely bypasses the thalamus is the sense of smell, which has its private switching station, the olfactory bulb
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17 The Forebrain The Limbic System
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