Chapter 3 - The Nature and Nurture of Behavior (Genetics)

Chapter 3 - The Nature and Nurture of Behavior (Genetics) -...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 The Nature and Nurture of Behavior Genes Explaining Similarity Explaining Differences Environmental Differences Gender 2 3 4 5 The Human Cell The human body is comprised of over 200 different kinds of cells which are the smallest self- contained structures Cell membrane: the outside layer of the cell Cytoplasm: is comprised of specialized structures Mitochondria: are the powerhouses that process nutrients and provide the cells energy Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes: produce proteins Neucleus: The inner part of the cell 6 The Nucleus Chromosomes Genes Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 7 Chromosomes Rod shaped structures found in the center of the nucleus of every cell in the body. Each sperm and each ovum contains 23 chromosomes. The chromosomes contain the genes. The fertilized egg (zygote) and all the body cells that develop from it (except the sperm cells and the ova) contain 46 chromosomes. 8 Karyotype A photograph of a cells chromosomes arranged in pairs according to size 9 Genes The basic unit of genetic information They determine the nature and the function of the cell. The human genes (about 140,000) are referred to as the human genome. A genome is the full set of genes in each cell of an organism. 10 A Portion of a DNA Molecule 11 DNA They determine the nature of each cell and how it will function. At each level of the spiral or rungs of the ladder are particular chemical pairs. The arrangement of these pairs along the DNA molecule determines which kind of proteins that will be formed in the cell. 12 Terms Gametes: Sex cells (ovum or sperm) Diploid cells: Cells having 2 copies of each chromosome Haploid gametes: Gametes having 1 copy of each chromosome 13 Meiosis Meiosis takes place in the testicles and ovaries. A diploid cell (having 2 copies of each chromosome) undergoes a special form of cell division to create haploid gametes (having 1 copy of each chromosome). An egg and a sperm fuse together to form a new diploid cell called zygote (a process called fertilization) 14 15 Mitosis In the first step of mitosis, all chromosomes are copied , so that instead of 2 copies, the cell briefly has 4 copies of each chromosome....
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Evettesamaan during the Spring '12 term at Harvard.

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Chapter 3 - The Nature and Nurture of Behavior (Genetics) -...

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