Chapter 12 - Personality (Theoretical Perspective)

Chapter 12 - Personality (Theoretical Perspective) - 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Welcome to Psychology 101 Introductory Psychology Instructor: Yvette Samaan Book: Myers, David G. (2002). Exploring Psychology, 7 th Edition. E-mail: Giseladora@AOL.com 2 Theories of Personality 3 History of Psychology Psychology is a fairly new science. Until the 19 th century it was not recognized as a separate field of study. The birth of psychology as a formal science can be traced back to 1879. It was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany. The use of introspection 4 Defining Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment. 5 Specialties in Psychology Experimental Psychology Clinical Psychology Educational Psychology Developmental Psychology Industrial Psychology Psychometric Psychology Social Psychology 6 Defining Personality Personality is a distinctive and stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time. This pattern reflects a particular constellation of traits and characteristics that describe the person across many situations: shy, friendly, hostile, or brave. 7 Measuring Personality Projective Tests Objective Tests 8 Psychological Testing Objective Tests Also called Inventories Measure beliefs, feelings, or behaviors of which the individual is aware Have more reliability and validity Projective Tests Designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives. 9 1- Objective Tests Inventories The Beck Depression Scale Inventory The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory 10 11 2- Projective Tests A psychodynamic measure of personality They attempt to measure unconscious motives, feelings and conflicts. Example: Rorschach Inkblot Test the client reports what he sees in the inkblots and the clinician interprets the answers according to the symbolic meaning emphasized by the psychodynamic theories. 12 The Rorschach Projective Test 13 14 15 Theories of Personality 1- The Trait Perspective 2- The Psychodynamic Perspective 3- The Social-Cognitive Learning Theory 4- The Biological Theory 5- The Humanist and Existential Theories 16 1- Trait Perspective Gordon Allport (1897-1977) 1- Cardinal Traits Are of overwhelming importance to the individual and influence almost everything the person does. Example: nonviolence Gandhi and Martin Luther King 17 2- Central Traits Reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations. Example: the persons attitude towards the world (negative or positive) 3- Secondary Traits They include habits, opinions, and preferences for colors or food, for example. 18 The Big Five Introversion vs. Extroversion Neuroticism or Emotional Instability/Stability Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to Experience 19...
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Evettesamaan during the Spring '12 term at Harvard.

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Chapter 12 - Personality (Theoretical Perspective) - 1...

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