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Heredity and Environment

Heredity and Environment - Genetics and Prenatal...

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1 Genetics and Prenatal Development The Beginning of Life Conception
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8 The Human Cell The human body is comprised of over 200 different kinds of cells which are the smallest self- contained structures Cell membrane: the outside layer of the cell Cytoplasm: is comprised of specialized structures Mitochondria: are the powerhouses that process nutrients and provide the cell’s energy Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes: produce proteins Neucleus: The inner part of the cell
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9 The Nucleus Chromosomes Genes Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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10 Chromosomes Rod shaped structures found in the center of the nucleus of every cell in the body. Each sperm and each ovum contains 23 chromosomes. The chromosomes contain the DNA and genes. The fertilized egg (zygote) and all the body cells that develop from it (except the sperm cells and the ova) contain 46 chromosomes.
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11 Chromosomes 22 of the pairs are called autosomes and are numbered from largest to smallest. The autosomes are not involved in determining sex. The 23 rd pair are the sex chromosomes: XX in females XY in males
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12 Karyotype A photograph of a cell’s chromosomes arranged in pairs according to size
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13 A Portion of a DNA Molecule
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14 DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA They contain 4 nitrogen-carbon-hydrogen basis that bond to form specific pairs: adenine can only pair with thymine cytosine can only pair with guanine The combination of base pairs cannot vary
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15 DNA What Can Vary: 1- Which side of the ladder each base comes from 2- The order in which the base pairs occur along the ladder 3- The overall number of base pairs These variations account for differences between species. All organisms use just these 4 bases, but with different numbers and arrangements
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16 DNA There are 3.12 billion base pairs in human DNA The DNA in each normal human being is about 99.9% the same as every other normal human being Only .1% accounts for the biological contribution to all our individual differences in physical and psychological characteristics
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17 DNA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) A large portion of the .1% individual difference takes the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms. SNPs (snips) are nucleotide variations that occur on average about every 1,250 base pairs
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18 DNA They determine the nature of each cell in the body and how it will function. At each level of the spiral or rungs of the ladder are particular chemical pairs. The arrangement of these pairs along the DNA molecule determines which kind of proteins will be formed in the cell.
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19 Genes The basic unit of genetic information They determine the nature and the function of the cell.
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