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Middle Childhood, Cognitive and Physical Development 112

Middle Childhood, Cognitive and Physical Development 112 -...

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1 Middle Childhood Cognitive and Physical Development
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2 Physical Development Growth is now slower and steadier. They grow 2 to 3 inches a year. 9 – 10-year-olds: beginning of growth spurt for girls 11-year-olds: beginning of growth spurt for boys Girls are slightly shorter and lighter until 9. 11-year-olds: girls are generally taller and heavier Growth is influenced by activity level, exercise, nutrition, gender, and genetic factors
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3 Motor Development Gross Motor Skills Around age 5, locomotive skills such as running , jumping, and hopping are well in place. They develop interest in sports Fine Motor Skills Develop rapidly during preschool years and continue to improve
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4 Nutrition Children in North America receive good nutrition so most height and weight differences among children are due to genetically determined factors. Children in poorer areas of cities in Calcuta, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro are smaller than their counter parts in affluent areas of the same cities
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5 Proper Nutrition Positive Personality Trait More positive emotion Less anxiety More moderate activity level More eager to explore new environment Showing more persistence in frustrating situations Being more alert More energy levels Higher levels of self-confidence.
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6 Obesity Is defined as body weight that is more than 20% above the average for a person of a given height and weight. 10% of children are obese. 70% of children who are obese at ages 10 to 13 will continue to be seriously overweight as adults. Obesity can lead to high blood pressure, diabetes, and other medical problems
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7 Causes for Obesity Genetic Factors: a child with one obese parent has a 40% chance of becoming obese, and the proportion leaps to 80% if both parents are obese. Environmental Factors: The proportion of obesity has risen 54% since the 1960. Television viewing Lack of exercise Parental encouragement
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8 Cognitive Development Piaget and Education Children are active learners who construct their own theories about how the world operates. Children learn by doing. Teaching should be through showing rather than telling. Piaget encourages the use of concrete objects for teaching (blocks, rods, seeds)
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9 Preoperational Concrete (2 to 5-7 years) (5-7 to 12 years) Rigid and static Irreversible Focused on the here & now One dimension Egocentric Focused on perceptual evidence Intuitive Flexible Reversible Not limited to the here and now Multidimensional Less egocentric The use of logical inferences Cause and effect relationships
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10 Information Processing Memory Encoding Recorded in memory (Keyboard) Storage Saved in memory (on hard drive) Retrieved Brought into awareness (on screen)
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11 Information Processing Memory During middle childhood, short-term memory capacity improves significantly Meta-Memory An understanding about the processes that underlie memory emerge and improve during middle childhood
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