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ECE201_28_Thevenin_Op-Amps

ECE201_28_Thevenin_Op-Amps - ECE 201 Lecture 28...

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ECE 201 Lecture 28 Thevenin/Norton Equivalents for Circuits with Op-Amps Announcements Last Lecture #27: Examples: Summing circuit Difference circuit Preamplifier Saturation A/D and D/A converters This Lecture #28: Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems for operational amplifiers
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Saturation: Piecewise linear approximation Typical open-loop gain (A) range: 10 4 to 10 7
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Example for saturation Guess and Check Calculate Check if + + V in R 1 =10 k R f =50 k V dc -V dc 15 dc sat dc V V V V = = A = ∞ sat out sat V V V - Find V out and V d =V + -V - for the following cases: V in = 0.5 V, 4 V, and -4 V 1 f out in R V V R = -
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Guess and Check 0.5 in V V = 15 out V V = - 0.83 0 ! d V V V = - 4 in V V = 2.5 out V V = - 4 in V V = - 15 out V V = 0.83 0 ! d V V V = 0 d V V = Plot of the output response
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Digital-to-Analog Converters (D/A) 2.5 3.5 x < 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 [ 2 2 2 ] n out n v b b b E - - = + + + L 2.5 3.5 x < x y y= 011 Some info is lost Quantization:
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An example of D/A converter A digital switch 0 16 2 E I R = A D/A converter based on resistive ladder network. 1 0 0 1 [1 0 0 1] = 1*2 3 +0*2 2 +0*2 1 +1*2 0 = 9 V out = -(8I 0 +I 0 )*2R 0 2 16 E I R = 2 total R R = 9 16 E = - • R f = 2 R
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Superposition: Difference Amplifier Revisited + + + (Virtual ground) Difference Amplifier + + Inverting Amplifier + + Non-inverting Amplifier
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