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Chapter 2 Where do I Begin in Argumentation Student Version

Chapter 2 Where do I Begin in Argumentation Student Version...

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Unformatted text preview: Where do I Begin in Argumentation? Argumenta*on…   _________________   Intellectual Activity   _________________   Opinion Stating, Justifying or Refuting   _________________ __________ of Argumenta*on   Social or professional context in which people argue in order to make decisions. Fields…aka “Context” _______________   ____________________ _____________   Don’t change as we ____________________ move from field to field   _________   ____________________   It has its own ____________________ standards ____________________   Approach to Research Real Life Example “You as a student” _______________ ______________   Take 4 different classes   Regardless of specific at RCC.   Jargon? courses, all will expect you know how to   Specific proof   Spell required?   Expectations?   Organize your papers Argumenta*on Terms   ____________: The person who is seeking to change a belief or behavior. _____________   ____________: The person who does NOT want that change in belief or behavior…opposes it. _______________ Presump*on   Presumption: specifies who _________________at the beginning of the controversy. What exists now in law, ideas, policies and customs.   Important because you need to understand the beliefs and behaviors that ___________________________________________.   ______________   ______________ _____________ Presump*on   Presumption that is “assigned or given” based on influences by a field. It was not what________________________________.   In law: “Innocent until proven guilty.” It is assigned based on history.   Not the case in all countries…France! _______________ Presump*on   Automatic, it is the product of_________________________________________.   “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” “The Fortress” (Richard Whately)   ____________ Presumption: Soldiers stay where they are…   Presumption determines what an ___________ or “person seeking change” must do to prove a proposition.   Presumption is initially granted to ___________ or “person who does not want change”. _______________ Presump*on   Michael Sproule (1976) suggested asking the following questions: 1. What groups do audience members belong? 2. What sources of information do they rely on? 3. What is _____________________on subject? 4. What is _____________________to audience? Burden of Proof   Once presumption has been determined, the ____________ “person seeking change” to fulfill the burden of proof.   Burden of Proof: the obligation of the advocate to contest the ground by offering arguments that are logically sufficient to challenge presumption. ______________________________________________.   In law…____________ has burden of proof because the presumption is “innocent until proven guilty.” Prima Facie Case “_______________”   Prima Facie Case: Arguments sufficient enough to cause an audience to suspend reliance on presumption.   Upholds the _________________   Topical   Inherent for propositions of _______/__________ Prima Facie Case (Example) Ralph/Grand TheJ Auto   Automobile reported missing .   After this report was filed, officers apprehended Ralph with vehicle in question in his possession.   Ralph did not purchase the car and did not have permission to drive it. Prima Facie Case   The presumption of “innocent until proven guilty” would be suspended until lawyer proved otherwise. The responsibility of the _____________.   Defense attorney would have to reestablish the presumption by attacking one of these three arguments.   A __________ prima facie case means “sticking to the topic/what you agreed to argue” because it is easy to drift from topic to topic. Inherency   Identifies what is the ________ for a problem…if a ________ cannot be established, how can we argue it? Aka: ___________________________   ______________ Inherency: if the cause of the problem lies within the institutions, laws, rules or policies. (easier to find…)   ______________ Inherency: if the cause is a result of the beliefs, attitudes, values. ...
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