Personality: Theory, Research, and Assesment
Defining personality: (Consistency and distinctiveness)
Personality: refers to an individual’s unique constellation on consistent behavioural traits.
Consistency: The stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations.
Distinctiveness: The behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation.
Personality traits: Dispositions and Dimensions:
Personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular war in a variety of
situations. (adjectives such as honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, anxious describe
dispositions that represent personality traits.
Most approaches to personality assume some traits are more basic than others, a small
number of traits might determine others. Example, restlessness, impulsiveness, impatient,
are derived from a basic tendency such as excitable.
Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure of factor analysis reduced a large list of
personality traits to 16 basic personality traits.
The Five- Factor Model of personality traits:
In recent years Robert McCrae and Paul Costa used factor analysis to arrive at a 5-factor
model of personality.
5 Big traits are:
Agreeableness: These people tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest and
straight forward. People who score low in this category are known to be suspicious,
antagonistic, and aggressive.
Extraversion: People who score high in this are known as outgoing, sociable, upbeat,
friendly, assertive, and gregarious. Referred to as positive emotionality.
Neuroticism: People who score high in this tend to be anxious, hostile, self-conscious,
insecure, and vulnerable.
Openness to experience: Associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy,
imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes.