Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and...

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Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assesment Defining personality: (Consistency and distinctiveness) Personality: refers to an individual’s unique constellation on consistent behavioural traits. Consistency: The stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations. Distinctiveness: The behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation. Personality traits: Dispositions and Dimensions: Personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular war in a variety of situations. (adjectives such as honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, anxious describe dispositions that represent personality traits. Most approaches to personality assume some traits are more basic than others, a small number of traits might determine others. Example, restlessness, impulsiveness, impatient, are derived from a basic tendency such as excitable. Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure of factor analysis reduced a large list of personality traits to 16 basic personality traits. The Five- Factor Model of personality traits: In recent years Robert McCrae and Paul Costa used factor analysis to arrive at a 5-factor model of personality. 5 Big traits are: Agreeableness: These people tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest and straight forward. People who score low in this category are known to be suspicious, antagonistic, and aggressive. Extraversion: People who score high in this are known as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious. Referred to as positive emotionality. Neuroticism: People who score high in this tend to be anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable. Openness to experience: Associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes.
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Conscientiousness: The people tend to be diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual and dependable. Psychodynamic perspectives: Psychodynamic theories include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund freud, which focuses on unconscious mental forces. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory: It attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges. Structure of personality: Split into three components: The id, The ego, and the superego. Id: the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. The id operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of its urges. The id engages in primary-process thinking, which is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. Ego: Decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality
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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and...

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