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Unformatted text preview: CRASH COURSE IN ELEMENTARY PROBABILITY  ­ Sample space S: the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment (where one decides what counts as an outcome in advance)  ­ Elementary event: an element of S  ­ Event: a subset of S  ­ Example: pick a person from the class and ask them their age (in years); elem events are positive whole numbers; events include "between 20 and 22" (i.e., the set {class members between 20 and 22 years old}), etc.  ­ Example: toss a coin and see how far away it lands from some marked spot; elem events are non ­neg reals; events include "more than 3 meters" (i.e., {x in R| x >3.0 m}, etc.  ­ Example: toss two coins and see whether each lands heads or tails; elem events are HH HT TH TT; events include "at least one head" (i.e., {HH,HT,TH}), which can also be written as “>=1H”. Using that notation, 1H={HT,TH}.  ­ Example: we could redefine the previous experime...
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